1991 - 2006


Filename:  EECOMBINED-survey

March 2008 Draft




COUNTRY:  10 = United States;  21 = Slovenia;  22 = Croatia;  27 = Albania; 

          29 = Bulgaria;  31 = Czech;  32 = Poland;  33 = Slovakia

          34 = Hungary; 41 = Russia;  42 = Lithuania;  51 = Germany;

          61 = Pakistan;  62 = India;  71 = Japan;  81 = Norway.


CITYNAME:  1 = Moscow;  2 = Vladivostok; 3 = Irkutsk;  4 = Saransk; 

           5 = Zagreb;  6 = Osijek;     7 = Bratislava;   8 = Žilina;

           9 = Nitra;   10 = Baltimore;   11 = Bangalore; 12 = Poshan;

           13 = Prague; 14 = Pittsburgh; 15 = Ljubjlana; 16 = Tirana;

           17 = Kaunas; 18 = Blagoevgrad; 19 = Sophia; 20 = Budapest;

           21 = Matsuyam;


CITY:  1=Capital  2=Other major city   3=Minor city


DATYEAR:  XXXX             


SAMPLE:  1 = Psychology;  2 = Social Science;  3 = Business or Economics;

         4 = Mixed;  5 = Other;  6 = Humanities;  7 = Education;

         8 = Medicine



***R = Reversed item


1 – 26            Demographic questions


ACH1 – 23         Achievement Motivation Scale (Spence & Helmreich) (ACH)(WORK)(MASTERY)(COMP)


POW1 – 20         Power Motivation Scale (Frieze & Schmidt) (POW)(LEADER)(VISIB)(HELPING)


EST1 – 10         Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (EST)


AFFIL1 – 25       Affiliation motivation Scale (Mehrabian) (AFFIL)


INTIM1 to INTIM15 Intimacy motivation scale (Frieze & Schmidt) (INTIM)


JOB1 – 11         Job motivation items from previous surveys (JOB)


JDI1 – 11         Job Description Inventory Items (JDI)


JOBAFF1 – 2       McClelland-based affiliation motivation items (JOBAFF)


WD1 – 6           Work difficulty items (WD)


DB1 – 7           Difficulty of Combining Work and Family (Double Burden) (DB)


WKFAM1 – 5        Work-family value items from Michigan study (WKFAM)


FAMCEN1 – 6       Family Centrality (Misra, Ghosh & Kanungo) (FAMCEN)


WRKCEN1 – 6       Work Centrality (Kanungo) (WORKCEN)


MACHO1 – 17       Macho Scale items (MACHO)


ABORTION          Abortion item


ATW1 – 22         Spence and Helmreich Attitude Toward Women Scale (ATW)


PITT1 – 10        Additional Gender-Role Attitude Items (PITT)


NEOS1 – 9         Neosexism items (NEOS)


MSS1 – 8          Modern Sexism items (MSS)


ANO1 – 4          Anomie items (ANO)


NAT1 – 3          Nationality items (NAT)


C1 – C12          Attitudes about communism/socialism (C)


HTM 1-10          Hostility Toward Men


BTM 1-10          Benevolence Toward Men


HS 1-11           Hostile Sexism


BS 1-11           Benevolent Sexism


PEP 1,4,5,7,      Political-Economic Progressivism

10-11,13-14,      [from Newcomb, 1943].



NEW 1-38          Neophilia Scale (Walker)


IMP 1-30          Barratt Impulsiveness Scale


SA 1-8            Slovenia Attitude Items


G 1-17            Role of Government


S 1-7             New socialism items-Slavka


F 1-20            F-Scale
















See individual country/date/city/sample charts for information about which variables are included in which data set.


Current available data sets include:


10 = United States:  1991,1993,1994,1996,1997,1998,1999,2001,2003,2004

21 = Slovenia:  1991, 1993, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2002 

22 = Croatia:  1995, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2004

27 = Albania:  1996, 1998

29 = Bulgaria:  1998

31 = Czech:  1994, 1998, 2001, 2004

32 = Poland:  1994, 1996, 1998

33 = Slovakia: 2004

34 = Hungary:  1999, 2003

41 = Russia:  1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001

42 = Lithuania:  1996

71 = Japan:  2004

75 = India:  2004

81 = Norway:  2002





















































































































































































































Survey Variables and Question Wording.

Variable names in bold.



AGE = Actual Age


AGEG 1. Your age:   a=Under 18    b=18-20    c=21-22    d=23-30    e=Over 30


SEX 2. Your sex:     a=Male        b=Female


YEARCOL 3a. Year in college:  a=one   b=two   c=three   d=four   e=five or more


GRADPLAN 3b. Year you expect to finish your education:  a=This year

b=Next year   c=In two or more years


4. How far do you plan to continue your education? EDUPLAN

          a = Probably won't complete college

          b = Graduate with Bachelor's degree

          c = Some post-graduate work

          d = Graduate with Master's degree or PhD or advanced degree


5. Thinking about the first 16 years of your life, for how many of these years was your mother employed outside the home? MOMWORK

          a = Less than a year

          b = 1-3 years

          c = 3-5 years

          d = 5-10 years

          e = More than 10 years


6. Did your mother work outside the home before you were 5 years old? MOMB5

          a = No

          b = Yes, for some of this time

          c = Yes, for most of this time


7. How much education does your father have? DADEDU

          a = Grade school, but did not finish high school

          b = High School graduate(Vocational school-Slovene)

    c = Some college or post high school schooling (Academic high school-Slovene)

          d = College graduate (Bachelor's Degree)

          e = Post graduate degree (Masters or Doctorate)


8. How much education does your mother have? (Like DADEDU) MOMEDU

          a = Grade school, but did not finish high school

          b = High School graduate

          c = Some college or post high school schooling

          d = College graduate (Bachelor's Degree)

          e = Post graduate degree (Masters or Doctorate)


9. What is your current marital status?  MARSTAT

          a = Never married

          b = First marriage

          c = Remarried

          d = Separated/Divorced

          e = Widowed



10. Do you have any children? KIDS

          a = None

          b = One

          c = Two

          d = three

          e = Four or more


11. What religion were you raised as? KIDRELIG

          a = Catholic (1)   

          b = Orthodox (2)

          c = Other Christian (3)

          d = Jewish (4)

          e = Muslim (5)

          f = Other  (6)

          g = No special religion (7)


12. What religion do you now believe in? NOWRELIG

          a = Catholic (1)   

          b = Orthodox (2)

          c = Other Christian (3)

          d = Jewish (4)

          e = Muslim (5)

          f = Other  (6)

          g = No special religion (7)


13. How often do you attend religious services? SERVICES

          a = Never

          b = Once a year or less

          c = Less than once a month (Several times yearly in Slovenia)

          d = Less than once a week (Several times monthly in Slovenia

          e = Once a week or more


14. How would you rate your degree of religious feelings now? RELFEEL

          a = Extremely devout (Very devoted)

          b = Devout (Devoted)

          c = Mild religious feelings

          d = No religious feelings

          e = Opposed to religious beliefs - Atheist


15. Ideally, when would you like to marry (skip if already married)?

        a = Never                   MARIDEAL

        b = Don't Know

        c = Within the next 2 years

        d = Within the next 5 years

        e = More than 5 years from now

        [f = Already married used in Slovenia and Croatia]


16. Ideally, how many children would you like to have in your lifetime?

        a = None                 KIDIDEAL

        b = Don't know

  c = One

        d = Two

        e = Three or more





17. Where would you like to live for the majority of your adult years?

        a = In this general location(1)   LIVE

        b = Within 100 miles/km of here(2)  

        c = In another part of this country(3)

        d = In another country(4)

        e = don't know(5)

       [f = Where you grew up - used in Albania, Bulgaria, Poland, Russia](6)

       [g = Within 100 Kilometers of where you grew up – used in Albania,

 Poland, Russia](7)

       [h = In the capital (unless grew up there) – used in Bulgaria](8)


18.  After you complete your education, ideally, would you like to work

        a = full time     EDUWORK

        b = part time

        c = not at all


19.  After you get married, ideally, would you like to work

        a = full time     MARWORK

        b = part time

        c = not at all


20.  High school Success HSSUCC

        a = poor

        b = medium

        c = good

        d = very good


21. Where did you grow up? URBAN

        a = Urban

        b = Suburban

        c = Rural


22. Where have you grown up?  GROWUP

        a = in a village (or rural area)

        b = in a small town (under 200,000)

        c = in a city (over 200,000)

        d = in a major city (over 1,000,000)

        e = in the capital of the country


23. Have you been a refugee?  REFUGEE

        a = No

        b = Yes


24. Have you been an exile?   EXILE

        a = No   

        b = Yes


25. Where were you living before you became a refugee/exile? BEFREF

        a = Osijek or Baranja

        b = Other region in Croatia

        c = Bosnia

        d = Serbia

        e = Vojvodina

        f = Other

        g = Not refugee/exile   



26. If you have been a refugee/exile – has your family lived in Osijek?

        a = No                                                    FAM

        b = Yes

        c = Not refugee/exile





Please rate how much you agree/disagree with each statement below, using this scale:

 a=Disagree strongly


             c=Neutral          ACH1 TO ACH23


             e=Agree strongly



SUBSCALES: W = work; M = mastery; C = Competition


 1. It is important for me to do whatever I'm doing as well as I can even if it isn't popular with people around me.(W)


 2. I find satisfaction in doing things as well as I can.(W)


 3. There is satisfaction in a job well done.(W)


 4. Doing something better than I have in the past is very satisfying.(W)*


 5. I like to work hard.(W)


 6. Part of my enjoyment in doing things is improving my past performance.(W)


 7. R-I would rather do something at which I feel confident and relaxed than

   something which is challenging and difficult.(M)


 8. When a group I belong to plans an activity, I would rather direct it myself than just help out and have someone else organize it.(M)


 9. R-I would rather learn easy fun games than difficult thought games.(M)


10. If I'm not good at something I would rather keep struggling to master it

    than move on to something I may be good at.(M)


11. Once I undertake a task, I persist.(M)


12. I prefer to do things that require a high level of skill.(M)


13. I more often attempt tasks that I am not sure I can do than tasks I believe I can do.(M)


14. I like to be busy all the time.(M)


15. I try harder when I'm in competition with other people.(C)


16. I enjoy being in competition with others.(C)


17. It annoys me when other people perform better than I do.(C)


18. It is important to me to perform better than others on a task.(C)


19. I feel that winning is important in both work and games.(C)


20. Learning to do something unique gives me a sense of satisfaction.(M)*


21. The more talents I acquire, the more successful I feel I will be.(M)*


22. I enjoy improving upon my past performances.(M)*


23. I find satisfaction in exceeding my previous performances even if I don’t

    outperform others.(W) (Often Omitted)


* Items added




SUBSCALES: L = Leadership; V = Visibility; H = Helping




 1. If given the chance, I would make a good leader of people.(L)


 2. I enjoy planning things and deciding what other people should do.(L)


 3. R-I dislike being the center of attention at large gatherings.(V)


 4. I would like doing something important where people looked up to me.(V)


 5. R-It isn't necessary to hold important positions in life.(V)


 6. I like to have people come to me for advice.(H)


 7. I find satisfaction in having influence over others.(V)


 8. I enjoy debating with others in order to get them to see things my way.(V)


 9. I like to have a lot of control over the events around me.(L)


10. I would like for my ideas to help people.(H)


11. I hope to one day make an impact on others or the world.(H)


12. I think I would enjoy having authority over other people.(L)


13. I like to give orders and get things going.(L)


14. I want to be a prominent person in my community.(V)


15. I often worry that the next generation will live in a worse world than the one I live in.(H)


16. I like to be admired for my achievements.(V)


17. I think I am usually a leader in my group.(L)


18. I am very concerned over the welfare of others.(H)


19. When people I know are trying to solve a problem, my gut instinct is

    to offer them helpful suggestions.(H)


20. It would be very satisfying to be able to have impact on the quality of

    others' lives.(H)




 1. I feel that I have a number of good qualities.


 2. R-All in all, I am inclined to feel that I am a failure.


 3. I feel that I am a person of worth, at least on an equal basis

    with others.


 4. I am able to do things as well as most other people.


 5. R-I feel that I do not have much to be proud of.


 6. I take a positive attitude about myself.


 7. On the whole, I am satisfied with myself.


 8. R-I wish I could have more respect for myself.


 9. R-I certainly feel useless at times.


10. R-At times I think I am no good at all.






1.    R-When introduced to someone new, I don't make much effort to be liked.

(Omitted in Slovenia 97)


 2. I prefer a leader who is friendly and easy to talk to over one who is

    more aloof and respected. (Omitted in Slovenia 97)


 3. When I am not feeling well, I would rather be with others than alone.


 4. R-If I had to choose between the two, I would rather be considered

    intelligent than sociable.


 5. Having friends is very important to me.


 6. I would rather express open appreciation to others most of the time than

    reserve such feelings for special occasions.


 7. R-I enjoy a good movie more than a big party.


 8. I like to make as many friends as I can.


 9. R-I would rather travel abroad starting my trip alone than with one or

    two friends.


10. After I meet someone I did not get along with, I spend time thinking

    about arranging another, more pleasant meeting.


11. R-I think that fame is more rewarding than friendship.


12. R-I prefer independent work to cooperative effort.


13. I think that any experience is more significant when shared with a



14. When I see someone I know walking down the street, I am usually the first

    one to say hello.


15. R-I prefer the independence which comes from lack of attachments to the

    good and warm feelings associated with close ties.


16. I join clubs because it is such a good way of making friends.


17. R-I don't believe in showing overt affection toward friends.


18. R-I would rather go right to sleep at night than to talk to someone else

    about the day's activities.


19. R-I have very few close friends.


20. R-When I'm with people I don't know, it doesn't matter much to me if

    they like me or not.


21. If I had to choose, I would rather have strong attachments to my

    friends than have them regard me as witty and clever. (Omitted in   Slovenia 97)


22. R-I prefer individual activities such as crossword puzzles to group

    ones such as going out with friends.


23. I am much more attracted to warm, open people than I am to standoffish ones.


24. R-I would rather read an interesting book or go to the movies than

    spend time with friends.


25. When traveling, I prefer meeting people to simply enjoying the

    scenery or going places alone.




             a=Disagree strongly




             e=Agree strongly



Intimacy Motivation:  INTIM1 to INTIM15


 1. I have some friends that I feel very close to.


 2. I get upset when I no longer see someone I have felt close to in the past.


 3. I enjoy being with a special person in my life.


 4. I confide in others.


 5. I know there is someone I can depend on when I need them.


 6. Having a warm relationship with someone is important to me.


 7. R-My relationships don't tend to last a long time.


 8. I enjoy spending time alone with someone.


 9. Some of my closest relationships have happened by chance.


10. R-I don't have much in common with my friends.


11. I look forward to going on a vacation with someone special.


12. It is important to listen and try to help when a friend needs this.


13. It is very peaceful to spend time with someone special.


14. I would be very upset if something bad happened to a friend.


15. My close friends and I often touch each other.





There are no right or wrong answers to any of the following questions.

Please answer each in terms of your own reactions.

Use this scale:


         a=Disagree strongly




             e=Agree strongly



JOB MOTIVATION:  JOB1 TO JOB10 (Not a scale)

1.    After graduation, it is important to me that I have a career, not just a



 2. It is important to me that I become recognized in my field of work.


 3. It is important to me that I become one of the best in my field of work.


 4. I want a job that will allow me to help others.


 5. I want a job that will pay well.


 6. My ideal job would allow me great flexibility in setting hours and deciding what to do each day.


 7. My career will probably require long hours and travel.


 8. I expect to have to leave ["This region" or name of local city] to get a job after graduation.


 9. It is important to me that my job allow plenty of time for me to be with my family.


10. Knowing I would have a high level of job security is very important.


11.  I would like to start my own company and be an entrepreneur.







 1. Having a job that requires me to interact with other people.


 2. Being permitted to decide for myself how my work should be done.


 3. Having a job where tasks have an obvious beginning and end.


 4. Having a job which would enable me to use a variety of my skills and



 5. Having the results of my work significantly affect the lives or well-being of other people.


 6. Having managers or coworkers who let me know how well I'm doing on my job.


 7. Having a career where the job itself gives me feedback or clues about how

   well I'm doing (aside from any feedback from co-workers or supervisors).


 8. Having a job where I can earn high respect from my supervisor.


 9. Having a job where I can get a good result, even if others do better than



10. Having a job where my coworkers are also friends.


11. Planning things and deciding what other people should do.






 1. Working in a place where I have strong attachments to my coworkers.


 2. Working independently rather than cooperatively with others.





Use the following scale to mark your answers on the answer sheet:

         a = Strongly Disagree

           b = Disagree

           c = Neither Agree nor Disagree

           d = Agree

           e = Strongly Agree





 1. Given today's world, I expect that it will be difficult to find

    a job after graduation.


 2. R-There are many opportunities now in this country for good jobs.


 3. R-I expect to get a high paying job after I finish school.


 4. Nowadays, it will be very hard to keep a job, even if I find one.


 5. R-When someone is qualified, it is easy for that person to find a job.


 6. R-If people work hard and do a good job, they can be secure that they

    can keep their jobs.





 1. Having children enhances married life. (Omitted in S97)


2.    It is almost impossible to be a good parent and to have a demanding job.


3.    Having two or more children is much more difficult than having one child.

   (Often omitted)


 4. Married couples are happier if they do not have children.


 5. Taking care of a household is very difficult, and can easily be a full time job.


 6. It is almost impossible to have a demanding job and be a good mother at the same time.


 7. It is almost impossible to have a demanding job and be a good father at the same time. (Often Omitted)





 1. The rewards and satisfaction of raising a family are more important to me

    than anything else.


 2. Seriously pursuing a career involves costs in other areas of my life that

    I am not willing to accept. (Omitted in S97)


 3. R-I can't picture having a fully satisfying life without a career of my own.


 4. I would not take a job that would interfere with the things I like to do

    with my family.


5.    I can't imagine having a fully satisfying life without having children.





 1. People should get involved in the family.


 2. Life is worth living when people get totally absorbed in family life.


 3. The family should be considered central to one's life.


 4. An individual's goals should be mainly family oriented.


 5. The most important thing that happens in life involves the family.


 6. Family should be a large part of one's life.






 1. The most important thing that happens in life involves work.


 2. Work should be a large part of one's life.


 3. People should get involved in work.


 4. Work should be considered central to one's life.


 5. An individual's life goals should be mainly work oriented.


 6. Life is worth living when people get totally absorbed in work.




Questions about Attitudes and Feelings


There are no right or wrong answers to any of the following questions. Please answer each in terms of your own reactions.  Use the following scale to mark your answers on the answer sheet:


           a = Strongly Disagree

           b = Disagree

           c = Neither Agree nor Disagree

           d = Agree

           e = Strongly Agree





 1. A man is never justified in hitting his wife.


2.    Parents should maintain stricter control over their daughters than their 


3. For the most part, it is better to be a man than to be a woman.


 4. R-It is perfectly normal for a woman not to want to have children.


 5. I would be very uncomfortable in a situation where the woman worked and the man stayed home to take care of the house and children.


 6. R-It would be a good idea to elect a woman as the President of the United 



 7. I would not want to be in a couple where the man was considerably shorter
    than the woman.


 8. R-A woman is entitled to an abortion for reasons of personal choice.


 9. A wife shouldn't contradict her husband in public.


10. R-A wife who becomes a mother has no more reason to give up her career than a husband who becomes a father.


11. It is more important for a man to be successful in his career than it is for a woman.


12. There are some jobs that women simply shouldn't have.


13. I would be more comfortable with a male boss than with a female boss.


14. Women who try to be independent of their families are just hurting



15. R-A wife who sacrifices her family to a career is no more to blame than

    a husband who does the same thing.


16. A competitive woman is harder to get along with than a competitive man.


17. R-The decision about an abortion should be made by a woman, not her husband.





1.    An abortion in the first three months of pregnancy should remain a legal

 right for every woman.





1.    R-Vocational and professional schools should admit the best qualified

   students, independent of sex.


 2. R-Both husband and wife should be allowed the same grounds for divorce.


 3. Telling dirty jokes should be mostly a masculine prerogative.


 4. R-Husbands and wives should be equal partners in planning the family budget.

 5. R-Under modern economic conditions with women being active outside the home, men should share in household tasks such as washing dishes and doing the laundry.


 6. R-There should be a strict merit system in job appointment and promotion

    without regard to sex.


 7. The initiative in dating should come from the man.


 8. R-A woman should be as free as a man to propose marriage.(Often omitted)


 9. R-Parental authority and responsibility for discipline of the children

    should be equally divided between husband and wife.


10. Women should worry less about their rights and more about becoming

    good wives and mothers.


11. A woman should not expect to go to exactly the same places or to have quite the same freedom of action as a man.


12. Sons in a family should be given more encouragement to go to college than



13. It is ridiculous for a woman to drive a truck and for a man to dust 



14. It is childish for a woman to assert herself by retaining her maiden name

    after marriage.(Often omitted)


15. R- Society should regard the services rendered by women workers as valuable as those of men.


16. It is only fair that male workers should receive more pay than women,

    even for identical work.


17. In general, the father should have greater authority than the mother

    in bringing up the children.


18. There are some professions and types of businesses that are more suitable

    for men than women.


19. The intellectual leadership of a community should be largely in the hands of men.


20. The husband has in general no obligation to inform his wife of his financial plans.


21. R-The intellectual equality of women with men is perfectly obvious.


22. R-If both husband and wife agree, there is no reason why both should not

    have extramarital affairs if they want to. (Often omitted)





1.    R-A working mother can establish as warm and secure a relationship with her children as a mother who does not work.


 2. Women are much happier if they stay at home and take care of their children.


 3. Preschool children are likely to suffer if their mother works.


 4. R-Men and women should be paid the same money if they do the same work.


 5. R-A woman should have exactly the same job opportunities as a man.


 6. R-Men should share the work around the house with women, such as doing

    dishes, cleaning, and so forth.


 7. R-A woman's job should be kept for her when she is having a baby.


 8. Women who do not want at least one child are being selfish.


 9. R-A woman can live a full and happy life without marrying.


10. A woman who has a child without being married is immoral.





 1. Discrimination against women in the labor force is no longer a

    problem in this country.


 2. R-I consider the present employment system to be unfair to women.


 3. Women shouldn't push themselves where they are not wanted.


 4. Women will make more progress by being patient and not pushing

    too hard for change.


 5. It is difficult to work for a female boss.


 6. Women's requests in terms of equality between the sexes are

    simply exaggerated.


3.    A woman should not seek a high level job if she plans to have children.


8. In order not to appear prejudiced, many men are inclined to

    give women more rights than they give men.


 9. R-In a fair employment system, men and women would be considered






 1. R-Women often miss out on good jobs due to sexual discrimination.


 2. It is rare to see women treated in a sexist manner on television.


 3. Society has reached the point where women and men have equal

    opportunities for achievement.


 4. R-It is easy to understand the anger of women's groups.


 5. Over the past few years, the government and news media have been

    showing more concern about the treatment of women than is warranted

    by women's actual experiences.


 6. Discrimination against women is no longer a problem in this country.


 7. On average, people in our society treat husbands and wives equally.


 8. R-It is easy to understand why women's groups are still concerned

    about societal limitations of women's opportunities.




 1. Nowadays, you really don't know any more who you can trust.


 2. Most people are disappointing once you get to know them better.


 3. What happens in life is largely a matter of chance.


 4. I have little influence over the things that happen to me.




 1. Anyone who lives and works in this country has the right to citizenship.


 2. Solidarity as a nation is based on common interests and concerns.


 3. Cultural differences divide a nation.



Importance of Basic Values VALUES1 - VALUES21


Here are some concepts. Evaluate how important each of these is to you.  [Sometimes scored from 0 to 10)


     a = Completely Unimportant

     b = Unimportant

     c = Neutral

     d = Important

     e = Absolutely Important


       1. Money

 2. Music

 3. Education

 4. Good food and drink

 5. Democracy

 6. Having a good time

 7. Religion

 8. Politics

 9. Love

10. Clean environment

11. Health

12. My country

13. Sports

14. Honesty

15. Peace

16. The Church

17. Freedom

18. Hope

19. Equality

20. Work

21. Brotherhood






 1. Government should guarantee everyone a minimum standard of living.


 2. The government should place an upper limit on the money any

    individual person can earn in salary.


 3. The government should provide a job for everyone who wants one.


 4. All in all, I would prefer to live in a socialist society.


 5. R-A non-socialist free market economy is the best for our country.


 6. R-Communism is the worst type of government.


 7. Communism is good for some countries, but not for others.


 8. Government should help poor citizens by providing social welfare, free 

    healthcare, and assistance with childcare.


 9. Cultural events such as ballet and opera should be subsidized by government so everyone can afford tickets.


10. People should be paid according to their level of skill and the effort they put into their work.  


11. Capitalism gives people opportunities for personal development.


12. Socialism gives people opportunities for personal development.



Hostility Toward Men: HTM 1-10



1. A man who is sexually attracted to a woman typically has no morals about doing whatever it takes to get her in bed.


2. When men act to “help” women, they are often trying to prove they are better than women.


3. Men would be lost in this world if women weren’t there to guide them.


4. Men act like babies when they are sick.


5. Men will always fight to have greater control in society than women.


6. Even men who claim to be sensitive to women’s right really want a traditional relationship at home, with the woman performing most of the housekeeping and child care.


7. Men usually try to dominate conversations when talking to women.


8. Most men pay lip service to equality for women, but can’t handle having a woman as an equal.


9. When it comes down to it, most men are like children.


10. Most men sexually harass women, even if only in subtle ways, once they are in a position of power over them.




Benevolence Toward Men: BTM 1-10


1. Even if both members of the couple work, the woman ought to be more attentive to taking care of her man at home.


2. Men are less likely to fall apart in emergencies than women are.


3. Every woman needs a male partner who will cherish her.


4. A woman will never be truly fulfilled in life if she doesn’t have a committed, long-term relationship with a man.


5. Men are mainly useful to provide financial security for women.


6. Every woman ought to have a man she adores.


7. Men are more willing to put themselves in danger to protect others.


8. Women are incomplete without men.


9. Men are more willing to take risks than women.


10. Women ought to take care of their men at home, because men would fall apart if they had to fend for themselves.


Hostile Sexism: HS 1-11


1. Many women are actually seeking special favors, such as hiring policies that favor them over men, under the guide of asking for “equality.”


2. Most women interpret innocent remarks as acts of being sexist.


3. Women are too easily offended.


4. Feminists are seeking for women to have more power than men.


5. Most women fail to appreciate fully all that men do for them.


6. Women seek to gain power by getting control over men.


7. Women exaggerate problems they have at work.


8. Once a woman gets a man to commit to her, she usually tries to put him on a tight leash.


9. When women lose to men in a fair competition, they typically complain about being discriminated against.


10. Many woman would get kick out of teasing men by seeming sexually available and then refusing male advances.


11. Feminists are making unreasonable demands of men.



Benevolent Sexism: BS 1-11


1. No matter how accomplished he is, a man is not truly complete as a person unless he has the love of a woman.


2. In a disaster, women ought to be rescued before men.


3. People are not truly happy in life without being romantically involved with a member of the other sex.


4. Many women have a quality of purity that few men possess.


5. Women should be cherished and protected by men.


6. Every man ought to have a woman whom he adores.


7. Men are incomplete without women.


8. A good woman should be set on a pedestal by her man.


9. Women, compared to men, tend to have a superior moral sensibility.


10. Men should be willing to sacrifice their own well-being in order to provide financially for the women in their lives.


11. Women, as compared to men, tend to have a more refined sense of culture and good taste.



Political-Economic Progressivism: PEP1, 4-5,7,10-11,13-14,16-18,20,22-26



1. The only true prosperity of the nation as a whole must be based upon the prosperity of the working class.


4. Economic repressions occur chiefly because the working classes did not receive enough in wages to purchase goods and services produced at a profit.


5. A “planned economy” is not enough unless it is planned for the welfare of workers rather than of business.


7. R-The people who complain most about the depression wouldn’t take a job if you gave it to them.


10. R-Any able-bodied person could get a job right now if he or she tried hard enough.


11. R-Most people on relief are living in reasonable comfort.


13. Our government has always been run primarily in the interest of big business, and so it is those interests which are chiefly responsible for economic downturns.


14. Since it is impossible for working people to make any substantial savings, they have fully earned their right to an old-age pension.


16. It is all right to try to raise the standard of living of the lower classes, provided that existing property rights are continually safeguarded.


17. Most employers think only of profits and care little about their employees’ welfare.


18. R-Unemployment insurance has saddled us with a nation of idlers.


20. We have no true democracy in this country, because only business and industrial concerns have economic opportunity.


22. R-You can’t expect democracy to work well as long as so many uneducated and unintelligent people have the vote.


23. R-The vast majority of those in the lower economic classes are there because they are stupid or shiftless, or both.


24. Those who have the ability and the foresight to accumulate wealth ought to be permitted to enjoy it themselves.


25. The middle class will never enjoy security or prosperity until they understand that their welfare is identified with that of the working class, and not with that of business and industrial groups.


26. The real threat to prosperity in this country is the repressive activities of those who wish to keep wealth and economic power in the hands of those who now possess them.


Neophilia Scale:  NEW1 TO NEW38


1.           R-I think there should be less change in our society.

2.           I am uncomfortable when things stay the same for long.

3.           R-When ordering a meal in a restaurant, I tend to avoid unusual dishes or dishes I have never tasted before.

4.           When I choose where I would like to go for a vacation, I tend to choose unusual or exotic places.

5.           R-The structure of our society should change less than it does.

6.           People who know me seem to think that I am into strange and unusual things.

7.           R-When I go to see a movie, I tend to avoid “arty” ones.

8.           My tastes in music are unorthodox.

9.           I would rather take a strange but interesting course than a more conventional but useful one.

10.       The style of my clothes is somewhat outlandish.

11.       R-Acupuncture can do nothing conventional medicine cannot do better.

12.       Pigs can fly.

13.       I would like to be one of the first passengers to go to the moon.

14.       R-Current sexual mores are too permissive.

15.       R-The things I laugh at are the things most people think are funny.

16.       More people ought to experiment with “mind-altering” drugs.

17.       Given the chance, I would rather parachute from a plane than go to a ball.

18.       R-I would not like my boyfriend/girlfriend/spouse to be different from what people expect him/her to be.

19.       R-I would never like try eating insects.

20.       I am always thinking of better ways of doing things.

21.       R-I do not like to take risks.

22.       I sometimes wonder what it would be like to be someone else.

23.       Most people are stuffier than I am.

24.       R-There is a lot to be said for tradition.

25.       R-I can understand those who long for “The Good Old Days.”

26.       R-Old friends are the best friends.

27.       R-I was happier when I was younger.

28.       R-I do not believe it is right to pass laws on matters of morals.

29.       Even when most people do something one way, there is usually a better way if we search for it.

30.       There is no such thing as an evil person.

31.       Crime is caused by the situation people find themselves in.  

32.       R-Changes in sex roles have brought us to a position that is about right. 

33.       The pressures for sexual equality have gone too far. 

34.       R-I like change.

35.       R-Things are changing too much in my life now.

36.       People should always seek personal growth.

37.       R-I often long for the simplicity of the past.

38.       R-They don’t make things like they used to.


Barratt Impulsiveness Scale: IMP1 TO IMP30

1.           R-I plan tasks carefully.

2.           I do things without thinking.

3.           I make up my mind quickly.

4.           I am happy-go-lucky.

5.           I don’t “pay attention.”

6.           I have racing thoughts.

7.           R-I plan trips well ahead of time.

8.           R-I am self-controlled.

9.           R-I concentrate easily.

10.       R-I save regularly.

11.       I squirm during plays or lectures.

12.       R-I am a careful thinker.

13.       R-I plan for job security.

14.       I say things without thinking.

15.       R-I like to think about complex problems.

16.       I change jobs.

17.       I act on impulse.

18.       I get easily bored when solving thought problems.

19.       I act on the spur of the moment.

20.       R-I am a steady thinker.

21.       I change where I live.

22.       I buy things on impulse.

23.       I can only think about one problem at a time.

24.       I change hobbies.

25.       I spend or charge more than I earn.

26.       I have outside thoughts when thinking.

27.       I am more interested in the present than in the future.

28.       I am restless at the theater or lectures.

29.       R-I like puzzles.

30.       R-I am future oriented. 


Slovenia Attitude Items: SA1 TO SA8

1.           I feel very close to my family.

2.           I enjoy traveling.

3.           It is important to me to look my best.

4.           I would [do] enjoy living alone.

5.           I enjoy living in Slovenia.

6.           Young people have an obligation to make our society better.

7.           Being around people and places I know is very comforting.

8.           I feel that I can make a difference in rebuilding Slovenia.



Role of Government: G1 TO G17


a.             It is the responsibility of the government to reduce the differences in income between people with high incomes and those with low incomes.

b.             The government should control wages by law.

c.             The government should be involved in financing of projects to create new jobs.

d.             The government should provide support for declining industries to protect jobs.

e.             Reducing the work week to create more jobs.

f.             The government should increase spending for health.

g.             There should be more government spending for old age pensions.

h.             Government should increase spending for unemployment benefits.

i.             There should be more government spending for culture and the arts.

j.             It is the responsibility of the government to provide a job for everyone who wants one.

k.             It is the responsibility of the government to provide health care for the sick.

l.             It is the responsibility of the government to provide a decent standard of living for the old.

m.             It is the responsibility of the government to provide industry with the help it needs to grow.

n.             It is the responsibility of the government to provide a decent standard of living for the unemployed.

o.             Government should reduce income differences between the rich and the poor.

p.             People with high incomes should pay a much larger proportion (percentage) of their earnings in taxes than those who earn low incomes.

q.             People with high incomes and low incomes should pay the same proportion (percentage) of their earnings in taxes.


New Socialism Items-Slavka: S1 TO S7


1.             The state should provide free medical care to its citizens.

2.             Social welfare should be same for all citizens, regardless of their job or education.

3.             Ideally, there should be zero unemployment in the society.

4.             Sometimes it is necessary to restrict some individual rights in order to maintain social order.

5.             Private ownership should be limited and controlled by the state because inequality creates hatred.

6.             The state should have a right to control and restrict its citizens because “social good” is more important than “individual good.”

7.             The state knows what is good for its citizens and that justifies all rules and decrees it imposes.     


F-Scale: F1 TO F20


1.             Nowadays more and more people are prying into matters that should remain personal and private.

2.             R-If it weren’t for the rebellious ideas of youth, there would be less progress in the world.

3.             No weakness or difficulty can hold us back if we have enough will power.

4.             Every person should have complete faith in some supernatural power whose decisions he obeys without question.

5.             R-It is highly unlikely that astrology will ever be able to explain anything.

6.             What youth needs most is strict discipline, rugged determination, and the will to work and fight for family and country.

7.             Most of our social problems would be solved if we could somehow get rid of the immoral, crooked, and feeble-minded people.

8.             R-An urge to jump from high places is probably the result of unhappy personal experiences rather than something inborn.

9.             R-The findings of science may some day show that many of our most cherished beliefs are wrong.

10.         R-People ought to pay attention to new ideas even if they seem to go against our way of life.

11.         R-One of the most important things children should learn is when to disobey authorities.

12.         In order for us to do good work, it is necessary that our bosses outline carefully what is to be done and exactly how to go about it.

13.         Sex crimes, such as rape and attacks on children, deserve more than mere imprisonment; such criminals should be publicly whipped, or worse.

14.         Most people don’t realize how much our lives are governed by plots hatched in secret by politicians.

15.         No sane, normal, decent person could ever think of hurting a close friend or relative.

16.         R-The artist and professor are probably more important to society that the businessman and manufacturer.

17.         R-Most honest people admit to themselves that they have sometimes hated their parents.

18.         Human nature being what it is, there will always be war and conflict.

19.         R-In spite of what you read about the wild sex life of people in important places, the real story is about the same in any group of people.

20.         R-Books and movies ought to give a more realistic picture of life even if they show that evil sometimes triumphs over good.