ATTITUDES 1991 - 2001
July 2001 Draft
COUNTRY:   10 = United States;  21 = Slovenia;  22 = Croatia;  27 = Albania;
     29 = Bulgaria;  31 = Czech;  32 = Poland; 34 = Hungary 41 = Russia;  42 = Lithuania;
     51 = Germany; 61 = Pakistan;  71 = Japan.

CROATIA: 1 = Zagreb    2 = Osijek

RUSSIA:  1 = Moscow;  2 = Vladivostok;  3 = Irkutsk;  4 = Saransk

CITY: 1=Capital  2=Other major city   3=Minor city


SAMPLE: 1 = Psychology;  2 = Social Science;  3 = Business or Economics;
               4 = Mixed;  5 = Other;  6 = Humanities;  7 = Education

***R = Reversed item
1 - 26               Demographic questions
ACH1 - 23            Achievement Motivation Scale (Spence & Helmreich)
POW1 - 20            Power Motivation Scale (Frieze & Schmidt)
EST1 - 10            Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale
AFFIL1 - 25          Affiliation motivation Scale (Mehrabian)
INTIM1 to INTIM15    Intimacy motivation scale (Frieze & Schmidt)
1 - 10               Job motivation items from previous surveys
JDI1 - 11            Job Description Inventory Items
JOBAFF1 - 2          McClelland-based affiliation motivation items
WD1 - 6              Work difficulty items
DB1 - 7              Difficulty of Combining Work and Family (Double Burden)
WKFAM1 - 5           Work-family value items from Michigan study
FAMCEN1 - 6          Family Centrality (Misra, Ghosh & Kanungo)
WRKCEN1 - 6          Work Centrality (Kanungo)
MACHO1 - 17          Macho Scale items
ABORTION             Abortion item
ATW1 - 22            Spence and Helmreich Attitude Toward Women Scale
PITT1 - 10           additional Gender-Role Attitude Items
NEOS1 - 9            Neosexism items
MSS1 - 8             Modern Sexism items?
ANO1 - 4             Anomie items
NAT1 - 3             Nationality items
C1 - C12             attitudes about communism/socialism

Survey Variables and Question Wording.

Variable names in bold.
YEARBORN XXXXX AGE = Actual Age AGEG 1. Your age: a=Under 18 b=18-20 c=21-22 d=23-30 e=Over 30 SEX 2. Your sex: a=Male b=Female YEARCOL 3a. Year in college: a=one b=two c=three d=four e=five or more GRADPLAN 3b. Year you expect to finish your education: a=This year b=Next year c=In two or more years
4. How far do you plan to continue your education?EDUPLAN
          a = Probably won't complete college
          b = Graduate with Bachelor's degree
          c = Some post-graduate work
          d = Graduate with Master's degree or PhD or advanced degree

5. Thinking about the first 16  years of your life, for how many of these years
     was your mother employed outside the home? MOMWORK 
          a = Less than a year
          b = 1-3 years
          c = 3-5 years
          d = 5-10 years
          e = More than 10 years

6. Did your mother work outside the home before you were 5 years old? MOMB5     
          a = No
          b = Yes, for some of this time
          c = Yes, for most of this time

7. How much education does your father have?    DADEDU
          a = Grade school, but did not finish high school
          b = High School graduate(Vocational school-Slovene)
          c = Some college or post high school schooling (Academic high school-Slovene)
          d = College graduate (Bachelor's Degree)
          e = Post graduate degree (Masters or Doctorate)

8. How much education does your mother have? (Like DADEDU) MOMEDU
          a = Grade school, but did not finish high school
          b = High School graduate
          c = Some college or post high school schooling
          d = College graduate (Bachelor's Degree)
          e = Post graduate degree (Masters or Doctorate)

9. What is your current marital status? MARSTAT 
          a = Never married
          b = First marriage
          c = Remarried
          d = Separated/Divorced
          e = Widowed
10. Do you have any children?  KIDS
          a = None
          b = One
          c = Two
          d = three
          e = Four or more

11. What religion were you raised as? KIDRELIG
          a = Catholic (1)
          b = Orthodox (2)
          c = Other Christian (3)
          d = Jewish (4)
          e = Muslim (5)
          f = Other  (6)
          g = No special religion (7)

12. What religion do you now believe in? NOWRELIG
          a = Catholic (1)
          b = Orthodox (2)
          c = Other Christian (3)
          d = Jewish (4)
          e = Muslim (5)
          f = Other  (6)
          g = No special religion (7)

13. How often do you attend religious services? SERVICES
          a = Never
          b = Once a year or less
          c = Less than once a month (Several times yearly in Slovenia)
          d = Less than once a week (Several times monthly in Slovenia
          e = Once a week or more

14. How would you rate your degree of religious feelings now? RELFEEL
          a = Extremely devout (Very devoted)
          b = Devout (Devoted)
          c = Mild religious feelings
          d = No religious feelings
          e = Opposed to religious beliefs - Atheist

15. Ideally, when would you like to marry (skip if already married)?
          a = Never                                MARIDEAL
          b = Don't Know
          c = Within the next 2 years
          d = Within the next 5 years
          e = More than 5 years from now
          f = Already married

16. Ideally, how many children would you like to have in your lifetime?
          a = None                 KIDIDEAL 
          b = Don't know
          c = One
          d = Two
          e = Three or more
17. Where would you like to live for the majority of your adult years?
          a = In this general location(1)   LIVE
          b = Within 100 miles/km of here(2)
          c = In another part of this country(3)
          d = In another country(4)
          e = don't know(5)
         [f = Where you grew up - used in Albania, Bulgaria, Poland, 
         [g = Within 100 Kilometers of where you grew up - used in Albania,
                Poland, Russia](7)
         [h = In the capital (unless grew up there) - used in Bulgaria](8)

18.  After you complete your education, ideally, would you like to work
          a = full time     EDUWORK
          b = part time
          c = not at all

19.  After you get married, ideally would you like to work
          a = full time     MARWORK
          b = part time
          c = not at all

20.  High school Success HSSUCC
          a = poor
          b = medium
          c = good
          d = very good

21. Where did you grow up? URBAN
          a = Urban
          b = Suburban
          c = Rural

22. Where have you grown up?     GROWUP
          a = in a village (or rural area)
          b = in a small town (under 200,000)
          c = in a city (over 200,000)
          d = in a major city (over 1,000,000)
          e = in the capital of the country

23. Have you been a refugee?   REFUGEE
          a = No
          b = Yes

24. Have you been an exile?   EXILE
          a = No
          b = Yes

25. Where were you living before you became a refugee/exile? BEFREF
          a = Osijek or Baranja
          b = Other region in Croatia
          c = Bosnia
          d = Serbia
          e = Vojvodina
          f = Other
          g = Not refugee/exile
26. If you have been a refugee/exile - has your family lived in Osijek?
          a = No                        FAM
          b = Yes
          c = Not refugee/exile

Please rate how much you agree/disagree with each statement below, using this scale: a=Disagree strongly b=Disagree c=Neutral ACH1 TO ACH23 d=Agree e=Agree strongly ______________________________________________________
SUBSCALES: W = Work; M = Mastery; C = Competition
1. It is important for me to do whatever I'm doing as well as I can even if it isn't popular with people around me.(W) 2. I find satisfaction in doing things as well as I can.(W) 3. There is satisfaction in a job well done.(W) 4. Doing something better than I have in the past is very satisfying.(W)* 5. I like to work hard.(W) 6. Part of my enjoyment in doing things is improving my past performance.(W) 7. R-I would rather do something at which I feel confident and relaxed than something which is challenging and difficult.(M) 8. When a group I belong to plans an activity, I would rather direct it myself than just help out and have someone else organize it.(M) 9. R-I would rather learn easy fun games than difficult thought games.(M) 10. If I'm not good at something I would rather keep struggling to master it than move on to something I may be good at.(M) 11. Once I undertake a task, I persist.(M) 12. I prefer to do things that require a high level of skill.(M) 13. I more often attempt tasks that I am not sure I can do than tasks I believe I can do.(M) 14. I like to be busy all the time.(M) 15. I try harder when I'm in competition with other people.(C) 16. I enjoy being in competition with others.(C) 17. It annoys me when other people perform better than I do.(C)
18. It is important to me to perform better than others on a task.(C)

19. I feel that winning is important in both work and games.(C)

20. Learning to do something unique gives me a sense of satisfaction.(M)*

21. The more talents I acquire, the more successful I feel I will be.(M)*

22. I enjoy improving upon my past performances.(M)*

23. I find satisfaction in exceeding my previous performances even if I don't
    outperform others.(W) (Often Omitted)

* Items added

SUBSCALES: L = Leadership; V = Visibility; H = Helping
 1. If given the chance, I would make a good leader of people.(L)

 2. I enjoy planning things and deciding what other people should do.(L)

 3. R-I dislike being the center of attention at large gatherings.(V)

 4. I would like doing something important where people looked up to me.(V)

 5. R-It isn't necessary to hold important positions in life.(V)

 6. I like to have people come to me for advice.(H)

 7. I find satisfaction in having influence over others.(V)

 8. I enjoy debating with others in order to get them to see things my way.(V)

 9. I like to have a lot of control over the events around me.(L)

10. I would like for my ideas to help people.(H)

11. I hope to one day make an impact on others or the world.(H)

12. I think I would enjoy having authority over other people.(L)

13. I like to give orders and get things going.(L)

14. I want to be a prominent person in my community.(V)

15. I often worry that the next generation will live in a worse world than the
    one I live in.(H)

16. I like to be admired for my achievements.(V)

17. I think I am usually a leader in my group.(L)
18. I am very concerned over the welfare of others.(H)

19. When people I know are trying to solve a problem, my gut instinct is
    to offer them helpful suggestions.(H)

20. It would be very satisfying to be able to have impact on the quality of
    others' lives.(H)

1. I feel that I have a number of good qualities. 2. R-All in all, I am inclined to feel that I am a failure. 3. I feel that I am a person of worth, at least on an equal basis with others. 4. I am able to do things as well as most other people. 5. R-I feel that I do not have much to be proud of. 6. I take a positive attitude about myself. 7. On the whole, I am satisfied with myself. 8. R-I wish I could have more respect for myself. 9. R-I certainly feel useless at times. 10. R-At times I think I am no good at all.
AFFIL1 TO AFFIL25 1. R-When introduced to someone new, I don't make much effort to be liked. (Omitted in Slovenia 97) 2. I prefer a leader who is friendly and easy to talk to over one who is more aloof and respected. (Omitted in Slovenia 97) 3. When I am not feeling well, I would rather be with others than alone. 4. R-If I had to choose between the two, I would rather be considered intelligent than sociable. 5. Having friends is very important to me. 6. I would rather express open appreciation to others most of the time than reserve such feelings for special occasions. 7. R-I enjoy a good movie more than a big party. 8. I like to make as many friends as I can. 9. R-I would rather travel abroad starting my trip alone than with one or two friends.
10. After I meet someone I did not get along with, I spend time thinking
    about arranging another, more pleasant meeting.

11. R-I think that fame is more rewarding than friendship.

12. R-I prefer independent work to cooperative effort.

13. I think that any experience is more significant when shared with a

14. When I see someone I know walking down the street, I am usually the first
    one to say hello.

15. R-I prefer the independence which comes from lack of attachments to the
    good and warm feelings associated with close ties.

16. I join clubs because it is such a good way of making friends.

17. R-I don't believe in showing overt affection toward friends.

18. R-I would rather go right to sleep at night than to talk to someone else
    about the day's activities.

19. R-I have very few close friends.

20. R-When I'm with people I don't know, it doesn't matter much to me if
    they like me or not.

21. If I had to choose, I would rather have strong attachments to my
    friends than have them regard me as witty and clever. (Omitted in Slovenia

22. R-I prefer individual activities such as crossword puzzles to group
    ones such as going out with friends.

23. I am much more attracted to warm, open people than I am to standoffish ones.

24. R-I would rather read an interesting book or go to the movies than
    spend time with friends.

25. When traveling, I prefer meeting people to simply enjoying the
    scenery or going places alone.

             a=Disagree strongly              b=Disagree              c=Neutral              d=Agree              e=Agree strongly
Intimacy Motivation: INTIM1     to      INTIM15
1. I have some friends that I feel very close to. 2. I get upset when I no longer see someone I have felt close to in the past. 3. I enjoy being with a special person in my life. 4. I confide in others. 5. I know there is someone I can depend on when I need them. 6. Having a warm relationship with someone is important to me. 7. R-My relationships don't tend to last a long time. 8. I enjoy spending time alone with someone. 9. Some of my closest relationships have happened by chance. 10. R-I don't have much in common with my friends. 11. I look forward to going on a vacation with someone special. 12. It is important to listen and try to help when a friend needs this. 13. It is very peaceful to spend time with someone special. 14. I would be very upset if something bad happened to a friend. 15. My close friends and I often touch each other.
There are no right or wrong answers to any of the following questions. Please answer each in terms of your own reactions. Use this scale: ___________________________________________________ a=Disagree strongly b=Disagree c=Neutral d=Agree e=Agree strongly ______________________________________________________
1. After graduation, it is important to me that I have a career, not just a job. 2. It is important to me that I become recognized in my field of work. 3. It is important to me that I become one of the best in my field of work. 4. I want a job that will allow me to help others. 5. I want a job that will pay well. 6. My ideal job would allow me great flexibility in setting hours and deciding what to do each day.
 7. My career will probably require long hours and travel.

 8. I expect to have to leave ["This region" or name of local city] to get a job
    after graduation.

 9. It is important to me that my job allow plenty of time for me to be with my

10. Knowing I would have a high level of job security is very important.

1. Having a job that requires me to interact with other people. 2. Being permitted to decide for myself how my work should be done. 3. Having a job where tasks have an obvious beginning and end. 4. Having a job which would enable me to use a variety of my skills and talents. 5. Having the results of my work significantly affect the lives or well-being of other people. 6. Having managers or coworkers who let me know how well I'm doing on my job. 7. Having a career where the job itself gives me feedback or clues about how well I'm doing (aside from any feedback from co-workers or supervisors). 8. Having a job where I can earn high respect from my supervisor. 9. Having a job where I can get a good result, even if others do better than me. 10. Having a job where my coworkers are also friends. 11. Planning things and deciding what other people should do.
1. Working in a place where I have strong attachments to my coworkers. 2. Working independently rather than cooperatively with others.
Use the following scale to mark your answers on the answer sheet: a = Strongly Disagree b = Disagree c = Neither Agree nor Disagree d = Agree e = Strongly Agree
1. Given today's world, I expect that it will be difficult to find a job after graduation. 2. R-There are many opportunities now in this country for good jobs. 3. R-I expect to get a high paying job after I finish school. 4. Nowadays, it will be very hard to keep a job, even if I find one. 5. R-When someone is qualified, it is easy for that person to find a job. 6. R-If people work hard and do a good job, they can be secure that they can keep their jobs.
1. Having children enhances married life. (Omitted in S97) 2. It is almost impossible to be a good parent and to have a demanding job. 3. Having two or more children is much more difficult than having one child. (Often omitted) 4. Married couples are happier if they do not have children. 5. Taking care of a household is very difficult, and can easily be a full time job. 6. It is almost impossible to have a demanding job and be a good mother at the same time. 7. It is almost impossible to have a demanding job and be a good father at the same time.
1. The rewards and satisfaction of raising a family are more important to me than anything else. 2. Seriously pursuing a career involves costs in other areas of my life that I am not willing to accept. (Omitted in S97) 3. R-I can't picture having a fully satisfying life without a career of my own.
 4. I would not take a job that would interfere with the things I like to do
    with my family.

 5. I can't imagine having a fully satisfying life without having children.

1. People should get involved in the family. 2. Life is worth living when people get totally absorbed in family life. 3. The family should be considered central to one's life. 4. An individual's goals should be mainly family oriented. 5. The most important thing that happens in life involves the family. 6. Family should be a large part of one's life.
1. The most important thing that happens in life involves work. 2. Work should be a large part of one's life. 3. People should get involved in work. 4. Work should be considered central to one's life. 5. An individual's life goals should be mainly work oriented. 6. Life is worth living when people get totally absorbed in work.
Questions about Attitudes and Feelings
There are no right or wrong answers to any of the following questions. Please answer each in terms of your own reactions. Use the following scale to mark your answers on the answer sheet: a = Strongly Disagree b = Disagree c = Neither Agree nor Disagree d = Agree e = Strongly Agree
1. A man is never justified in hitting his wife. 2. Parents should maintain stricter control over their daughters than their sons. 3. For the most part, it is better to be a man than to be a woman.
 4. R-It is perfectly normal for a woman not to want to have children.

 5. I would be very uncomfortable in a situation where the woman worked and the
    man stayed home to take care of the house and children.

 6. R-It would be a good idea to elect a woman as the President of the United

 7. I would not want to be in a couple where the man was considerably shorter
    than the woman.

 8. R-A woman is entitled to an abortion for reasons of personal choice.

 9. A wife shouldn't contradict her husband in public.

10. R-A wife who becomes a mother has no more reason to give up her career than
    a husband who becomes a father.

11. It is more important for a man to be successful in his career than it is for
    a woman.

12. There are some jobs that women simply shouldn't have.

13. I would be more comfortable with a male boss than with a female boss.

14. Women who try to be independent of their families are just hurting

15. R-A wife who sacrifices her family to a career is no more to blame than
    a husband who does the same thing.

16. A competitive woman is harder to get along with than a competitive man.

17. R-The decision about an abortion should be made by a woman, not her husband.

1. An abortion in the first three months of pregnancy should remain a legal right for every woman.
1. R-Vocational and professional schools should admit the best qualified students, independent of sex. 2. R-Both husband and wife should be allowed the same grounds for divorce. 3. Telling dirty jokes should be mostly a masculine prerogative. 4. R-Husbands and wives should be equal partners in planning the family budget.
 5. R-Under modern economic conditions with women being active outside the home,
    men should share in household tasks such as washing dishes and doing the

 6. R-There should be a strict merit system in job appointment and promotion
    without regard to sex.

 7. The initiative in dating should come from the man.

 8. R-A woman should be as free as a man to propose marriage.(Often omitted)

 9. R-Parental authority and responsibility for discipline of the children
    should be equally divided between husband and wife.

10. Women should worry less about their rights and more about becoming
    good wives and mothers.

11. A woman should not expect to go to exactly the same places or to have quite
    the same freedom of action as a man.

12. Sons in a family should be given more encouragement to go to college than

13. It is ridiculous for a woman to drive a truck and for a man to dust

14. It is childish for a woman to assert herself by retaining her maiden name
    after marriage.(Often omitted)

15. R- Society should regard the services rendered by women workers as valuable
    as those of men.

16. It is only fair that male workers should receive more pay than women,
    even for identical work.

17. In general, the father should have greater authority than the mother
    in bringing up the children.

18. There are some professions and types of businesses that are more suitable
    for men than women.

19. The intellectual leadership of a community should be largely in the hands of

20. The husband has in general no obligation to inform his wife of his financial

21. R-The intellectual equality of women with men is perfectly obvious.

22. R-If both husband and wife agree, there is no reason why both should not
    have extramarital affairs if they want to. (Often omitted)

1. R-A working mother can establish as warm and secure a relationship with her Children as a mother who does not work.
 2. Women are much happier if they stay at home and take care of their children.

 3. Preschool children are likely to suffer if their mother works.

 4. R-Men and women should be paid the same money if they do the same work.

 5. R-A woman should have exactly the same job opportunities as a man.

 6. R-Men should share the work around the house with women, such as doing
    dishes, cleaning, and so forth.

 7. R-A woman's job should be kept for her when she is having a baby.

 8. Women who do not want at least one child are being selfish.

 9. R-A woman can live a full and happy life without marrying.

10. A woman who has a child without being married is immoral.

1. Discrimination against women in the labor force is no longer a problem in this country. 2. R-I consider the present employment system to be unfair to women. 3. Women shouldn't push themselves where they are not wanted. 4. Women will make more progress by being patient and not pushing too hard for change. 5. It is difficult to work for a female boss. 6. Women's requests in terms of equality between the sexes are simply exaggerated. 7. A woman should not seek a high level job if she plans to have children. 8. In order not to appear prejudiced, many men are inclined to give women more rights than they give men. 9. R-In a fair employment system, men and women would be considered equal. MODERN SEXISM ITEMS: MSS1 to MSS8
1. R-Women often miss out on good jobs due to sexual discrimination. 2. It is rare to see women treated in a sexist manner on television. 3. R-Society has reached the point where women and men have equal opportunities for achievement. 4. R-It is easy to understand the anger of women's groups.
 5. Over the past few years, the government and news media have been
    showing more concern about the treatment of women than is warranted
    by women's actual experiences.

 6. Discrimination against women is no longer a problem in this country.

 7. On average, people in our society treat husbands and wives equally.

 8. R-It is easy to understand why women's groups are still concerned
    about societal limitations of women's opportunities.

1. Nowadays, you really don't know any more who you can trust. 2. Most people are disappointing once you get to know them better. 3. What happens in life is largely a matter of chance. 4. I have little influence over the things that happen to me.
1. Anyone who lives and works in this country has the right to citizenship. 2. Solidarity as a nation is based on common interests and concerns. 3. Cultural differences divide a nation.
Importance of Basic Values VALUES1 - VALUES21
Here are some concepts. Evaluate how important each of these is to you. [Sometimes scored from 0 to 10] a = Completely Unimportant b = Unimportant c = Neutral d = Important e = Absolutely Important 1. Money 2. Music 3. Education 4. Good food and drink 5. Democracy 6. Having a good time 7. Religion 8. Politics 9. Love 10. Clean environment 11. Health 12. My country 13. Sports 14. Honesty 15. Peace 16. The Church 17. Freedom 18. Hope 19. Equality 20. Work 21. Brotherhood
1. Government should guarantee everyone a minimum standard of living. 2. The government should place an upper limit on the money any individual person can earn in salary. 3. The government should provide a job for everyone who wants one. 4. All in all, I would prefer to live in a socialist society. 5. R-A non-socialist free market economy is the best for our country. 6. R-Communism is the worst type of government. 7. Communism is good for some countries, but not for others. 8. Government should help poor citizens by providing social welfare, free healthcare, and assistance with childcare. 9. Cultural events such as ballet and opera should be subsidized by government so everyone can afford tickets. 10. People should be paid according to their level of skill and the effort they put into their work. 11. Capitalism gives people opportunities for personal development. 12. Socialism gives people opportunities for personal development. 
See individual country/city/sample charts [see file VARIABLE_COUNTRY.DOC ] for information about which variables are included in which data set. Current available data sets: United States (10): 1991, 1993, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999 Slovenia (21): 1991, 1993, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1999 Croatia (22): 1995, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000 Albania (27): 1996, 1998 Bulgaria (29): 1998 Czech (31): 1994, 1998, 2001 Poland (32): 1994, 1996, 1998  Hungary (34): 1999, Russia (41): 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001 Lithuania (42): 1996 Germany (51): 1996, 1997