Selected Publications

Hirtle, S. C. (forthcoming). Landmarks for navigation in humans and robots. In M.E. Jefferies and W.-K. Yeap (Eds.) Spatial Mapping Approaches in Robotic and Natural Mapping Systems. New York: Springer.

Hirtle, S. C. & Sorrows, M. E. (2007). Navigation in electronic environments. In G. Allen (Ed.), Applied Spatial Cognition: From Research to Cognitive Technology (pp. 103-126). Mahwah NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hirtle, S. C. (2006). Information design for the support of navigation. In J. Portugali (Ed.), Complex Artificial Environments: Simulation, Cognition and VR in the Study and Planning of Cities (pp. 235-244). Berlin: Springer.

Mark, D. M., Smith, B., Egenhofer, M. & Stephen Hirtle, S. C. (2004). Ontological foundations for geographic information science, In R.B. McMaster and L. Usery (eds.), Research Challenges in Geographic Information Science. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press..

Milligan, G. W. & Hirtle, S. C. (2003). Clustering and classification methods. In J. Schinka & W. Velicer, (Eds.). Comprehensive Handbook of Psychology (Volume 2, pp. 165-186). New York: Wiley & Sons.

Hirtle, S. C. (2003). Neighborhoods and landmarks. In M. Duckham, M. F. Goodchild, & M. F. Worboys (Eds.). Foundations of Geographic Information Science. London: Taylor & Francis.

Heo, M. & Hirtle, S. C., (2001). An empirical comparison of visualization tools to assist information retrieval on the web. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 8, 666-675. [Journal PDF]

Hirtle, S. C. (2000). The use of maps, images and "gestures" for navigation. In Freksa, C., Brauer, W., Habel, C. & Wender, K.F.,(Eds.). Spatial Cognition II: Integrating Abstract Theories, Empirical Studies, Formal Methods, and Practical Applications. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. [Springer PDF]

Prado, H. A., Hirtle, S. C., & Engel, P. M. (2000). Scalable model for extensional and intensional descriptions of unclassified data.(pp. 407-414). In Rolim, J. et al (Eds.). Parallel and distributed processing. Lecture notes in Computer Science, 1800. Berlin: Springer.

Sorrows, M. E. & Hirtle, S. C., (1999). The Nature of Landmarks for Real and Electronic Spaces. In Freksa, C.; Mark, D. (Eds.), Spatial Information Theory. Lecture Notes in Computer Sci-ence, 1661. Springer, Berlin, pp. 37-50.

Mark, D. M., Freksa, C., Hirtle, S. C., Lloyd, R., & Tversky, B. (1999). Cognitive models of geographical space. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 13, 747-774. [Journal PDF]

Cai, G., Hirtle, S., C., and Williams, J. (1999). Mapping of geography of cyberspace using telecommunications infrastructure information". In: Laurini (Ed.), TeleGeo'99 the First International Workshop on Telegeoprocessing, Lyon, France. May 6-7, 1999.

Hirtle, S. C., Sorrows, M. E., & Cai, G. (1998). Clusters on the World Wide Web: Creating Neighborhoods of Make-Believe. In the Proceedings of Hypertext'98. Pittsburgh, PA. [ACM link]

Hirtle, S. C. & Sorrows, M. E. (1998). Designing a multimodal navigational tool for locating buildings on a college campus. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 18, 265-276.

Hirtle, S. C. (1998). The cognitive atlas: Using GIS as a metaphor for memory. In M. Egenhofer and R. Golledge (Eds.), Spatial and temporal reasoning in geographic information systems, pp. 263-271. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hirtle, S. C. & Cai, G. (1998). Classification structures for cognitive maps. In Hayashi, C., Oshumi, N., Yajima, K., Tanaka, Y., Bock, H. H., & Baba, Y. (Eds.). Data science, Classification and Related Methods: Studies in classification, data analysis, and knowledge organization. Toyko: Springer-Verlag.

Hirtle, S. C., & Frank, A. U. (Eds.), (1997). Spatial information theory: A theoretical basis for GIS. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Ghiselli-Crippa, T., Hirtle, S. C., & Munro, P. (1996). Connectionist models in spatial cognition. In Portugali, J. (Eds.), The Construction of Cognitive Maps (pp. 87-104). Boston: Kluwer.

Cai, G., & Hirtle, S. C. (1996). Retrieving environmental information from digital libraries. In the Proceedings of Eco-Informa'96, Lake Buena Vista, Florida.

Hirtle, S. C. (1995) Representational structures for cognitive space: Trees, Ordered Trees, and Semi-lattices. In A. V. Frank and W. Kuhn (Eds.), Spatial information theory: A theoretical basis for GIS. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Kim, H., & Hirtle, S. C. (1995). Spatial metaphors and disorientation in hypertext browsing. Behaviour & Information Technology, 14, 239-250. [PDF]

Hirtle, S. C. (1994). Spatial information science. In Mehrwert von information: professionalisierung der informationsarbeit, (4th Internationalen symposiums fur informationswissenschaft). pp. 116-121, Graz: Austria: University of Graz.

Hirtle, S. C. & Ghisselli-Crippa, T. (1994). Visualization tools for clustering trees, and ordered trees: Contextual hirearchies in classification schemes. In R. Fidel, B. H. Kwasnik, and P. J. Smith, (Eds.), Advances in Classification Research, Proceedings of the 3rd Classification Research Workshop, ASIS monograph series. Medford, NJ: Learned Information.

Hirtle, S. C., Ghiselli-Crippa, T., & Spring, M. S. (1993) The cognitive structure of space: An analysis of temporal sequences. In A. V. Frank and I. Campari (Eds.), Spatial information theory: A theoretical basis for GIS. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Heidorn, P. B., & Hirtle, S. C. (1993). Is spatial information imprecise or just coarse? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 16, 246-247.

Hirtle, S. C., & Heidorn, P. B. (1993). The structure of cognitive maps: Representations and processes. In Gärling, T. & Golledge, R. G. (Eds.), Behavior and Environment: Psychological and Geographical Approaches (pp. 170-192). Amsterdam: North-Holland.

Hirtle, S. C., & Gärling, T. (1992). Heuristic rules for sequential spatial decisions. Geoforum, 23, 227-238.

Olsen, K. A., Williams, J. G., Sochats, K. M., & Hirtle, S. C. (1992). Ideation through visualization: The VIBE system. Multimedia Review, 3 (3), 42-47.

Hirtle, S. C., & Hudson, J. H. (1991). The acquisition of spatial knowledge. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 11, 335-345. (Reprinted in Garling, T. (Ed.) (1995). Urban Cognition. Academic Press).

Hirtle, S. C. (1991). Knowledge representations of spatial relations. Doignon, J.-P., & Falmagne, J.-C. (Eds). Mathematical Psychology: Current developments. (pp. 233-250). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Mascolo, M. F., & Hirtle, S. C. (1990). Verbal coding and the elimination of Stroop Inference in a matching task. American Journal of Psychology, 103, 195-215.

Davidson D., & Hirtle, S. C. (1990). The effects of nondiscrepant and discrepant information on the use of base rates. American Journal of Psychology, 103, 343-357.

Hirtle, S. C., & Crawley, E. (1989). The use of ordered tress for uncovering strategies in free-recall. In N. X. Luong (Ed.) CUMFID n. 16: Analyse arborée des données textuelles (pp. 125-137). Nice, France.

McNamara, T. P., Hardy, J. K., & Hirtle, S. C. (1989). Subjective hierarchies in spatial memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 15, 211-227.

Hirtle, S. C. (1989). The representation of space: In the 2/3i of the beholder. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 12, 85.

Hirtle, S. C., & Kallman, H. K. (1988). Memory for the location of pictures: Evidence of hierarchical clustering. American Journal of Psychology, 101, 159-170.

Hirtle, S. C. (1987). On the classification of recall strategies using lattice-theoretic measures. Journal of Classification, 4, 227-242.

Hirtle, S. C., & Mascolo, M. F. (1986). The effect of semantic clustering on the memory of spatial locations. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 12, 181-189.

Kallman, H. K., Hirtle, S. C., & Davidson, D. (1986). Recognition masking of auditory duration. Perception and Psychophysics, 40, 45-52.

Hirtle, S. C., & Kallman, H. K. (1985). An integrated approach to computer usage in the instruction of experimental psychology. Behavioral Research Methods, Instrumentation, and Computers, 17, 359-362.

Hirtle, S. C., & Jonides, J. (1985). Evidence of hierarchies in cognitive maps. Memory & Cognition, 13, 208-217.

Hirtle, S. C. (1984). GRAFT: A LISP program for comparing long-term memory structures revealed through ordered trees. Behavioral Research Methods, Instrumentation, and Computers, 16, 405

Hirtle, S. C. (1982). Lattice-based similarity measures between ordered trees. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 25, 206-225.

McKeithen, K. B., Reitman, J. S., Rueter, H. R., & Hirtle, S. C. (1981). Knowledge organization and skill differences in computer programmers. Cognitive Psychology, 13, 307-325.

Knesper, D. J., & Hirtle, S. C. (1981). Strategies to attract psychiatrists to state mental hospital work: Results from a survey of potential employees. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 1135-1140.

Stephen C. Hirtle,