Department of History and Philosophy of Science
Main Office: 1017 Cathedral of Learning
Pittsburgh, PA 15260
Phone: 412-624-5896

Handbook, April 2004
Handbook, March 2003
Handbook, January 2002
Handbook, October 1999

Graduate Student Handbook

Revision: April 2005

Table of Contents


I. Graduate programs - general requirements

II. M.A. degree requirements

III. PH.D. degree requirements

    A. M.A. Equivalent
    B. Distribution of Studies Requirements
    C. Logic Requirement
    D. Language Requirement
    E. Comprehensive Requirement
      1. Examinations
      2. Research Papers
    F. Course Credit Requirement
    G. Teaching Requirement
    H. Dissertation Requirement
      1. Dissertation Committee
      2. Prospectus
      3. Admission to Ph.D. Candidacy
      4. Annual Meeting of Dissertation Committee
      5. Statute of Limitations
      6. Dissertation
      7. Final Oral Examination
      8. Dissertation Documents 9. Graduation

IV. Classics, philosophy and ancient science

V. Course offerings

VI. Additional information on course offerings

    A. HPS Core Seminars
    B. Departmental Teaching Practicum
    C. M.A. Thesis Research
    D. Independent Study Courses
    E. Directed Study
    F. Prospectus Research
    G. Dissertation Research
    H. FTDA
    I. Undergraduate Courses for Graduate Credit

VII. Departmental rules and regulations

    A. Advising and Registration
    B. Advanced Credit
    C. Departmental Resources
    D. Course Load
    E. Part Time Study
    F. Courses in Other Departments
    G. Academic Integrity
    H. Grades
    I. Incompletes
    J. Department Evaluations
    K. Leaves of Absence
    L. Placement
    M. Privacy Act

VIII. Teaching assistantships and fellowships

    A. Eligibility
    B. Training
    C. Evaluations
    D. Promotion from TA to TF
    E. Responsibilities

IX. Other items

    A. Graduate Student Organization
    B. Funds for Graduate Student Research and Travel

X. Timing of Some Requirements for the Doctoral Program


This booklet is a compendium of Departmental policy concerning graduate students. It embodies the rules and regulations of the Department of History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) and, as such, stands until amended by Departmental action.

Students are also responsible for complying with all requirements set forth in the University of Pittsburgh's The Faculty of Arts and Sciences - Graduate Programs Bulletin.

The University of Pittsburgh operates on the trimester system. The Fall (September-December) and Spring (January-April) terms are when most courses are given. HPS typically offers no graduate courses in the summer. Graduate courses are numbered 2000 and above. Undergraduate courses at a low level are numbered 0001-0999. Undergraduate courses at a higher level are numbered 1000-1999.

University of Pittsburgh nondiscrimination policy statement

The University of Pittsburgh, as an educational institution and as an employer, values equality of opportunity, human dignity, and racial/ethnic and cultural diversity. Accordingly, the University prohibits and will not engage in discrimination or harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, ancestry, sex, age, marital status, familial status, sexual orientation, disability, or status as a disabled veteran or a veteran of the Vietnam era. Further, the University will continue to take affirmative steps to support and advance these values consistent with the University's mission. This policy applies to admissions, employment, access to and treatment in University programs and activities. This is a commitment made by the University and is in accordance with federal, state, and/or local laws and regulations.

For information on University equal opportunity and affirmative action programs and complaint/grievance procedures, please contact: William A. Savage, Assistant to the Chancellor and Director of Affirmative Action (and Title IX and 504 Coordinator), Office of Affirmative Action, 901 William Pitt Union, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (412) 648-7860.


I. Graduate programs - general requirements:

The core of the graduate degree program is a series of seminars (approximately 4-6 are offered each term). These range from general surveys of the field and methods of research to specialized research on selected topics in history and philosophy of science. These courses are divided into three areas:

    Area 1: Core sequence: a three-term graduate level introduction to history and philosophy of science (HPS 2501, 2502, 2503).

    Area 2: History of Science.

    Area 3: Philosophy of Science.

The program leading to the Ph.D. in History and Philosophy of Science is designed as a five-year program; however, some students have taken longer. The first two years are given over chiefly to seminar work. Students must fulfill comprehensive requirements as outlined in Section III.E. Upon successful completion of distribution requirements, the logic requirement, language requirements, comprehensives, and upon approval of a suitable thesis topic and successful prospectus defense, they will begin work on their doctoral dissertation. Students making good progress toward a degree can expect five years of support, within limits of the Departmental budget.

Students who have completed or who are nearing completion of the program can expect Departmental assistance in their efforts to obtain jobs, provided that a first draft of the entire dissertation has been approved. The Department will do all that is reasonably possible to place those students. Students seeking Departmental placement assistance must abide by the Departmental placement rules.


II. M.A. degree requirements:

A. Distribution-of-Studies Requirement:

    1. Nine hours from Area 1 (Core Seminars). MA students must pass the end-of-term examination in all three core seminars. (See Section III E.1.)

    2. Fifteen hours from Areas 2 and 3, with at least six hours in each area.

B. Language Requirement: Good reading knowledge of either French, German, Latin, Greek, or approved substitute language. (Language acquisition courses cannot count toward the degree.) Proficiency is to be demonstrated according to III.D.

C. Research Paper Requirement: Students must submit a research paper in the history of science and a research paper in the philosophy of science. Evaluations of papers will be limited to a master's pass-fail. A master's pass on both papers is required for the M.A. degree. (See specifics in Section III.E.)

D. Course Credit Requirement: A minimum of 24 credit hours. No more than two (non-HPS) 1000-level courses (6 hours total) may count towards the M.A. degree. (No pre-1000 level courses can be used to satisfy the degree requirements. No HPS courses at the 1000-level can count.)


III Ph.D. degree requirements:

A. M.A. Equivalent: M.A. degree in History and Philosophy of Science or completion of M.A. requirements (II).

B. Further Distribution-of-Studies Requirements: At least nine hours at the 1000- or 2000-level, in one of the following (a maximum two 1000-level, including the two for the M.A.):

    1. philosophy, exclusive of philosophy of science and logic.

    2. history, exclusive of history of science.

    3. a field of natural science, social science, mathematics or computer science (courses taken towards the M.A. degree may be counted toward the requirement for the Ph.D.).

C. Logic Requirement: Proficiency in logic (equivalent to Philosophy 1500). The logic requirement, which must be completed before the prospectus examination, can be satisfied by obtaining 'B' or better in Philosophy 1500, Philosophy 2500 or by examination. Examinations can be arranged by contacting the course instructor of Philosophy 1500.

D. Language Requirement: Good reading knowledge of two foreign languages (Latin, Greek, German, French, or approved substitute), or of one foreign language and proficiency in logic equivalent to Philosophy 1520 or Philosophy 2500 ('B' pass or better in either) or an approved (by petition) alternative formal skill that has similarly general application in science or philosophy (e.g. proficiency in a computer language). Students concentrating in history of science must satisfy the language requirement with two foreign languages. One foreign language exam must be passed before the student completes the comprehensive requirements. The second language exam must be passed before the student's prospectus examination.

The language requirements can be satisfied in several ways:

    1. Passing the sequence of courses French 007 and French 008 (Intensive French for Reading) with a grade of B or better in each course.

    2. Passing the sequence of courses German 021 and German 022 (German Reading) with a grade of B or better in each course.

    3. Passing an examination of the following general type:

      a. The student will be given a passage of approximately 500-600 words from a suitable foreign text in history and philosophy of science. With the aid of a dictionary, s/he will prepare a written translation in one hour. (If the examination is in German, the text should be Roman, rather than Frakturschrift.)

      b. The examination will be graded on a pass-fail basis, and the major consideration will be comprehension rather than ability to produce a strictly literal translation.

      c. A student who fails the examination may take it as often as s/he chooses, unless terminated for other reasons. When possible, examiners will be rotated. The language requirement must be completed before the prospectus exam.

E. Comprehensive Requirement: By the end of the fall term of their third year in the program, students must have satisfactorily fulfilled the following requirements:

1. Examinations: Students must have sat and passed end of term examinations in the two history of science core seminars and the philosophy of science core seminar.

a. Failure to pass by the date given above is grounds for termination in the program.

b. The first sitting of the examinations must be at the conclusion of the actual offering of the seminar in question and must be completed before the end of the semester in which the seminar is offered. First and second-year students registered in the core seminars must take the examinations for those courses. Should they fail the examination in HPS 2501 Philosophy of Science, they may retake the examination when the seminar is offered the following year. Should they fail the examination in either of HPS 2502 History of Science I or HPS 2503 History of Science II, they may sit a second offering of the examination at the end of the spring term of the year in which they failed. This second offering will be set by the faculty member who taught the seminar in the fall; or by a suitable replacement designated by the Director of Graduate Studies or the Chair of Department.

c. The examinations are to be limited to the material covered in each seminar, and should test for broad knowledge and understanding of that material.

d. The examinations are to be set by the faculty member in charge of the seminar, in consultation with other faculty. The grading of the examinations is to be carried out by a committee consisting of the faculty member in charge of the seminar and at least one other faculty member. A grade of 'B' or better is required to pass the examinations.

e. The faculty in charge of the seminar decides whether to consider examinations associated with seminars independently from the measures used to arrive at the seminar grade. Thus, not all students in the seminar need be required to take the examination.

2. Research Papers: Each student must submit, for evaluation by the faculty, a research paper in history of science that considers an historical topic using historical techniques, and a research paper in philosophy of science that considers a philosophical topic using philosophical techniques.
      a. Papers will be accepted for evaluation in a Fall term only if received by the end of the third full week in September or in the Spring term, by the end of the second full week in January. Evaluations of papers will be limited to doctoral pass-fail, or master's only pass-fail with the option reserved by the faculty to request resubmission of a revised or new paper by a nominated date. Students must obtain a doctoral pass on both papers in order to continue in the doctoral program. A master's pass on both papers is required for the M.A. degree.

      b. The philosophy of science and history of science papers must be written in forms appropriate for submission respectively to Philosophy of Science and Studies in History and Philosophy of Science. This means the paper must meet every formal requirement of the journal (spacing, margins, placement of notes, bibliographic conventions, etc.). Regardless of journal policy, each comprehensive essay may not exceed 7,500 words, including quotations, notes, substantive footnotes, and so forth, but excluding bibliography and footnotes that merely cite references. Students must include a word count on the front page of their research papers. Failure to meet these requirements will mean that the essay will be turned back to the student without being read. Dates and times for completing the comprehensive requirements will not be altered for papers turned back.

      c. The principal criterion of evaluation is whether the paper gives a clear indication that its author is capable of original research and independent scholarly achievement, such as might lead to journal publication, as opposed to mere recapitulation of existing sources and seminar notes. In the philosophy of science paper, a novel and interesting thesis should be stated clearly and argued for cogently. In the history of science paper, attention must be given to the appropriate historical context and appropriate sources used.

      d. These papers are to be a test of a student's own abilities and are to be regarded as examinations. Students may consult with faculty about choice of topics. Indeed they are encouraged to do so. They may discuss their work with faculty and other students. Of course, helpful suggestions ought to be acknowledged in footnotes. What must be clear is that in conception and execution the essay is the work of the individual student. Papers will be evaluated by at least one faculty member who did not assist the student in the preparation of the paper.

      e. Written evaluation of the papers will be given to the student by the end of the term in which the papers are submitted.

      f. These papers may form the basis for dissertation proposals, although the papers cannot have the incomplete and programmatic character of a dissertation proposal. Thus, students are advised to select theses narrower in scope than those pursued in a doctoral dissertation.

      g. Requests for postponement of the submission date must be made at least six months in advance. Later requests will not be entertained, since it is intended that the papers result from a program of work extending well beyond the few months prior to the submission date.

      h. Students engaged in writing the papers may register for a lighter course load (see section VIII.D.) during one trimester of their choosing.

      i. The evaluation of these papers will customarily follow this procedure: Upon receipt of the papers, the chair and director of graduate studies will select at least two readers for each paper. Additional readers will then be selected if it is felt that further evaluation is needed. In particular, the decision to fail a paper will be taken only after it has been read by all primary faculty available. The evaluations of the readers will then be presented to the faculty for a final decision. This final decision should be made within six weeks of receipt of the papers. The identity of the readers will generally be made known to the applicant after the faculty has made a final decision on the entire set of exams. The applicant is invited to discuss the paper with the readers.

(Requirements A-E for the degree must be completed before the student can have a dissertation topic approved at a prospectus hearing.)

F. Course Credit Requirement: A minimum of 72 credit hours of graduate credit.

G. Teaching Requirement: All students must acquire some supervised teaching experience during their tenure at the University.

H. Dissertation Requirement:

    1. Dissertation Committee: Within three months of completion of the requirements A-E, the student should select a Dissertation Director, subject to approval by the Chair. With the aid of the Director, the student will select the other members of the Dissertation Committee. No faculty member is required to serve as Director or member of any particular Dissertation Committee.

    At least four persons must be on the Committee, the majority of whom, including the Director, must be full or adjunct members of the Graduate Faculty and members of the Department. The Committee must contain at least one member who does not hold primary, secondary, or adjunct membership in HPS.

    2. Prospectus: After the Dissertation Committee has been approved by the Chair, the student should prepare a written description of the dissertation project. This prospectus should include a bibliography of works to be consulted in working on the dissertation. The prospectus should be detailed enough to enable the Committee to decide the merits of undertaking the project. When the Dissertation Director agrees that the prospectus is ready to be distributed to members of the Committee, a prospectus meeting can be scheduled. At this meeting, the student defends the prospectus to the Committee. The Committee can either accept the prospectus unconditionally, ask for changes, or reject the prospectus. In any case the Director will convey to the student the reasons for the Committee's decision. Unless there are extenuating circumstances, students must pass the prospectus exam no later than the Fall of the fourth year in order to remain eligible for financial aid.

    3. Admission to Ph.D. Candidacy: After a student's prospectus has been accepted, the student is eligible for admission to candidacy for the Ph.D. degree. The appropriate University forms must be filed by the student and the Director with the Chair of the Department and the Dean of Graduate Studies. The Dean will notify the student in writing of the approval of admission to candidacy and of the composition of the Dissertation Committee. A student must be admitted to candidacy at least eight months before the Final Oral Examination. Once the student is admitted to candidacy, the Dissertation Director becomes the candidate's advisor. After admission to candidacy, any change in the composition of the Dissertation Committee requires approval of the Dean of Graduate Studies.

    4. Annual Meeting of Dissertation Committee: The candidate must meet annually (preferably at the beginning of the school year) with the Dissertation Committee to assess progress toward the degree, objectives for the following year, and a timetable for completing degree requirements. Committee members who are not in residence will be supplied with materials from the candidate and will make a written report to the Director concerning the candidate's progress.

    5. Statute of Limitations: The Department expects that the Ph.D. Program can be completed in five years. Formally, however, students are required to complete all requirements for the Ph.D. within a period of 10 years from the student's initial registration for graduate study or eight years if the student has received credit for a master's degree appropriate to the field of study. The Committee reviews annually the progress of dissertation students. The Dissertation Director may, in consultation with the student, require as a condition for continuing to serve as Director of the dissertation that the student give further indication of satisfactory and regular progress towards the completion of the degree.

    6. Dissertation: The candidate must submit a significant and acceptable dissertation on a topic in history and philosophy of science. The Dissertation must conform to University requirements as set out in the Style and Form Manual, available from the Office of the Dean of Graduate Studies. The dissertation should be in final typewritten or printed form and ready for binding before the oral examination.

    7. Final Oral Examination: The candidate is required to pass an oral examination in defense of the dissertation. The examination may cover material not covered in the dissertation. The examination will be conducted by the Dissertation Committee. No final oral examinations are held during the third term.

    At least four weeks (and if possible, six weeks) before the examination is scheduled, all members of the Committee must have received copies of the final draft of the dissertation and have indicated to the Director that the dissertation is defendable. At least two weeks before the Final Oral Examination, the Dissertation Director must provide the Dean of Graduate Studies with a typewritten notice, listing the title of the dissertation, and the time and place of the Final Oral Examination, for announcement within the University.

    Any member of the Graduate Faculty may attend and participate in the Final Oral Examination of a candidate. Other qualified persons may be invited by the Committee to attend and participate. Anyone else may attend but not participate. Only members of the Committee may vote on the outcome. Each member of the Committee may vote to: 1) accept the dissertation and recommend the candidate for the degree; 2) accept the dissertation conditional upon minor changes, to be supervised by the Dissertation Director; 3) require major changes and a resubmission and re- evaluation of the dissertation; or 4) reject the dissertation without right of resubmission.

    If the dissertation is accepted, reports on the Final Oral Examination and the approval of the dissertation must be signed by all members of the Dissertation Committee and sent to the Dean of Graduate Studies for approval. The report on the approval of the dissertation may be signed at the same time as the report on the Final Oral Examination, or later, after revisions have been approved. A bound copy of the dissertation must be given to the Department for placement in the Department's library. All duplicating expenses involved in dissertation work are the responsibility of the candidate.

    8. Dissertation Documents: The following are to be deposited with the Dean of Graduate Studies before the candidate can be graduated:

      a. One unbound copy of the defended and corrected dissertation and two copies of the title page.

      b. Three copies of an abstract of the dissertation (no more than 350 words in length), typed and double-spaced with title and student's name at the top of the first page. The Dissertation Director must write his or her initials in the upper right corner of the first page of each copy.

      c. Survey of Earned Doctorate (forms available in the Dean's Office).

      d. University Microfilm Agreement (forms available in the Dean's Office), with one copy of the title page.

      e. Receipt for binding and microfilming procured from the Cashier's Office. If any additional services are desired from University Microfilms International (UMI), i.e. copyright, extra copies, reprints, attach a money order or certified check made payable to UMI (cash not accepted).

      f. Insert sheet with typed names of members of the Dissertation Committee and the signature of the Dissertation Director (forms available in the Dean's Office).

    Note that (a) - (f) are requirements set by the University, not the Department; hence the Department cannot waive or alter them in any way. The student should check for exact fees and any revisions in the procedure to be followed; update sheets are available from the Dean's Office.

    9. Graduation: Candidates must file an Application for Graduation early in the term in which they expect to graduate (see current calendar for the deadline) and they must be registered for at least one credit during the term of their graduation.

(For rules pertaining to part-time participation in the program see section VIII.)


IV. Classics, philosophy and ancient science:

This is an M.A./Ph.D. program offered jointly by the Departments of Classics, Philosophy, and History and Philosophy of Science. Students in any of the three departments who are interested in the Philosophy and Science of Classical Greece and Rome may enroll in the CPAS Program. While enrolled in one of the three departments, students in the CPAS Program work closely with each other and with the cooperating faculty drawn from all three departments.

HPS students who are enrolled in the CPAS Program will concentrate on the scientific and philosophical texts of Classical Greece and Rome. They will be required to develop facility in Greek and Latin, to take courses in classical literature, history and philosophy, and courses in modern philosophy. They must meet Departmental Requirements A-E as well as the specific requirements of the CPAS Program. Students making satisfactory progress in the CPAS Program are guaranteed one additional year of financial support.

HPS faculty cooperating in the CPAS Program are: Bernard Goldstein, James Lennox, Peter Machamer and J.E. McGuire. For further information, contact James Lennox (HPS) or James Allen (Philosophy, CPAS Program Director).


V. Course offerings:

The Department's graduate seminars range from general surveys of the field and methods of research to specialized research seminars on selected topics in history and philosophy of science.

Currently Listed Courses are:

Area 1: Core Seminars

    2501-2503 Core Seminar in Philosophy of Science and Core Seminar in History of Science (two terms).

Area 2: History of Science

  • 2512: Ancient Scientific Astronomy
  • 2513: 19th-Century Physical Sciences
  • 2514: 19th-Century Biological Sciences
  • 2515 Perspectives in History of Science
  • 2517: The Mechanical Philosophy
  • 2518: Philosophy of Infinity
  • 2519: History of Astronomy
  • 2520: Newton
  • 2521: Science and Religion in the 17th-Century
  • 2522: Special Topics in History of Science
  • 2523: Newton's Optics
  • 2525: 20th-Century Biology
  • 2526: History of Relativity Theory
  • 2527: The Human and The Natural Sciences: The Classical Tradition
  • 2528: Galileo
  • 2529: Leibniz
  • 2530: Reading Seminar in History of Science
  • 2531: Freud and Psychoanalysis
  • 2532: History of the Old Quantum Theory
  • 2533: Descartes
  • 2534: General Relativity and Gravitation
  • 2535: Nature and the Laws of Nature and the Renaissance
  • 2537: Historiography of Science
  • 2538: Early Modern Philosophy of Science
  • 2539: Historiographies of Knowledge
  • 2540: Philosophy of Science in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
  • 2541: Aristotle's Science and Metaphysics
  • 2542: Hobbes and Spinoza
  • 2543: Kant and Scientific Thought
  • 2544: Locke and Leibniz
  • 2545: Aristotle's Biology
  • 2547: Aristotle's Philosophy of Science
  • 2548: Causes and the Cosmos: Scotus and Spinoza
  • 2551: Aristotle's Physics
  • 2553: Darwin's Origin
  • 2554: Aristotle and the Atomists
  • 2555: Hobbes
  • 2556: Aristotle's Matter Theory

Area 3: Philosophy of Science

  • *2536: Nature and the Laws of Nature: The Modern Treatment
  • 2623 Perspectives in Philosophy of Science
  • 2627 Philosophy of Physics
  • 2633 Philosophy of Cognitive Science
  • 2634 Topics in Philosophy of Cognitive Science
  • 2653: Models and Modeling in Science
  • 2657 Philosophy of Biology
  • 2658: Philosophy of Medicine
  • 2659: Neurobiology and Reduction
  • 2660: Causality
  • 2662: Reduction
  • 2663: Perception
  • 2665: Theory Construction in Psychology
  • 2666: Seminar on Inductive Inference
  • 2667: Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics
  • 2668: Topics in Philosophy of Biology
  • 2669: Realism
  • 2670: Topics in the Sociology of Knowledge
  • 2671: Models of Scientific Change
  • 2672: Philosophy of Biology and Medicine
  • 2673: Studies in Aristotle
  • 2674: Artificial Intelligence and the Logic of Discovery
  • 2675: Philosophy of Space and Time
  • 2676: Carnap & Reichenbach
  • 2677: Determinism
  • 2678: Artificial Intelligence and Causal Modeling
  • 2679: Historical Perspectives in Philosophy of Mathematics
  • 2680: Reading Seminar in the Philosophy of Science
  • 2681: Philosophy of Relativity Theory
  • 2682: Theories of Confirmation
  • 2683: Philosophy of Social Science
  • 2684: Perceptual Theory and Experimentation
  • 2685: Science and Its Rhetoric
  • 2686: Causality in the Social Sciences
  • 2687: Rationality and Relativism
  • 2688: Scientific Explanation
  • 2689: Causation in Science and the Law
  • 2690: History and Philosophy of Psychology
  • 2691 Perspectives in History and Philosophy of Science
  • 2693: Philosophy of Science in the Humanities
  • 2694: Bayesian Epistemology
  • *2596: Philosophical Perspectives on Feminism
  • 2697: Knowledge Representation
  • *2698: Topics in Medical Ethics
  • 2701: Philosophy of Psychoanalysis

*Courses will not fulfill the Ph.D. distribution of studies requirement.

Other courses of interest to students are offered by the Departments of Classics, Philosophy, History, Anthropology, Linguistics, Economics, Sociology, Mathematics, Psychology, Physics, and Computer Science.

These lists are open-ended. As new courses are developed and introduced they will be added to one or another list. At the time that the schedule for the next term is published, seminars will be marked as to whether they count in Areas 2 or 3. Reading courses that are given during the summer will be assigned to an Area at the time they are set up.


VI. Additional information on course offerings:

    A. HPS Core Seminars:

    Each student is required to take all three seminars (2501, 2502, 2503). HPS 2501 must be taken in the Fall Term of the first year. HPS 2502 and HPS 2503 are offered in alternate Fall Terms. They are to be taken in fall terms of the first two years in whichever order they are offered.

    HPS 2501 is a graduate survey of recent work in Philosophy of Science, intended to introduce students to the concepts and theories of the discipline.

    The HPS 2502/2503 combination is a two-term history of science sequence that deals especially with primary source material in a topical manner. The sequence is not intended as a survey of history of science and is designed so that either seminar in the sequence can be taken first. The content of the seminars will vary from year to year, but each seminar will deal with primary texts from different time periods.

    B. Departmental Teaching Practicum:

    This course, HPS 2497 (1 credit), is required of all TA/TFs who are teaching in HPS. During the first term in which a students teaches independently for HPS, s/he must also enroll in and attend FACDEV 2200, a 1-credit course for TA/TFs sponsored by the Office of Faculty Development.

    C. MA Thesis Research:

    D. Independent Study Courses:

    A student who has not completed the comprehensive requirements may not register for an independent study course without the written permission of the Director of Graduate Studies and the Chairman. HPS 2990 is to be used only for meeting course enrollment requirements. An "S" will automatically be given if the student is making satisfactory progress in the program.

    E. Directed Study:

    HPS 2902 (Pre MA Directed Study) and HPS 3902 (Advanced Directed Study) are to be used as actual courses that will require instructor supervision. They can be used to fill special needs. The Dean's office now allows Directed Study courses to be subtitled which will allow transcripts to be more descriptive.

    F. Prospectus Research:

    HPS 2999 is to be used when preparing work for a prospectus meeting.

    G. Dissertation Research:

    HPS 3000 is reserved for students who have been admitted to candidacy. Students are still encouraged to continue taking seminars.

    H. FTDA - Full Time Dissertation Study:

    This course is reserved only for those students who have been admitted to candidacy, have 72 credits, and have met all departmental requirements for the Ph.D. except the dissertation.

    HPS 3000 and FTDA are restricted to students who have been admitted to candidacy, since the department discourages extended, full time work on doctoral dissertations without the guidance of a properly constituted committee that has approved the project by passing the student's proposal at a prospectus exam.

    I. Undergraduate Courses for Graduate Credit:

    Graduate students may receive graduate credit for up to two 1000-level (6 hours) in non HPS subjects, subject to approval by the graduate advisor.


VII. Departmental rules and regulations:

    A. Advising and Registration:

    The Director of Graduate Studies advises all students until a dissertation director is approved.

    The student will meet with the Graduate Student Advisor and together they will arrange the student's program. Incoming students register at the beginning of their first term. Usually this is done after the new students' orientation meeting (held at the beginning of the Fall Term). Continuing students should pre-register.

    Students should pick up course schedules and registration forms from the secretary. All students must submit a copy of their registration form to the Department Administrator for inclusion in their files.

    Students whose grade point average falls below 3.0 or 'B' (counting non- departmental incompletes as 2.0) for two consecutive terms will not be allowed to register for the new term until the Department has reviewed their work and decided whether or not they may continue in the program.

    B. Advanced Credit:

    Those students entering the program with an M.A. or Ph.D. from elsewhere may petition the Department for credit toward their degrees. They should prepare a written document stating the requirements for which they wish to receive credit and listing the courses they have taken elsewhere satisfying the Departmental distribution requirements. They must submit to the Department an official transcript listing those courses. They may obtain a maximum of 24 credits for work elsewhere (credits cannot be counted toward a University of Pittsburgh Master's level degree). Transfer credits cannot be used to satisfy HPS Area 1, 2 or 3 seminar requirements.

    C. Departmental Resources:

    Because Departmental funds are limited, graduate students are not allowed to use Departmental telephones or secretarial services. Graduate students may use the photocopy machine at the rate of .05/page (See Department Administrator for an I.D. number).

    For a student on the job market, the Department will reproduce curriculum vitae and will duplicate the materials needed for the Departmental placement effort. All other expenses of reproducing a dissertation, including photocopying, are the student's responsibility.

    D. Course Load:

    The normal course load for a full-time student holding a TA is three courses, plus any required courses in teaching. Every TA should register for HPS 2497 (one credit) during the fall term of his/her first year as a TA. Every TA who is teaching independently for the first time must register for FACDEV 2200 (one credit). (The University Office of Faculty Development has designed this course to give an introduction to good university teaching for TAs who are teaching their own course for the first time.)

    Normal course load for full-time students not holding a TA (including fellows) is four courses (12 credits) for letter grade in the fall and spring terms.

    Students are to take this normal course load until the following Ph.D. requirements

    • III.B Further Distribution of Studies Requirements
    • III.C Logic Requirement
    • III.D Language Requirement

    are met. However, this load may be reduced by one course during the term in which the research papers are written for the comprehensive requirement by registering for HPS 2990 Independent Study (3 credits).

    Once requirements III.B, C and D are satisfied, full time students should continue to register for 9 credits in each of the fall and spring terms until they have accumulated the 72 credits required for the Ph.D.

    Students who have passed the comprehensive requirement III.E may register for up to 6 credits of HPS 2999 Prospectus Research. The remaining 3 credits should be in a course for letter grade.

    Students may not sit a prospectus exam until requirements III.A, B, C, D and E are satisfied.

    Students who have passed their prospectus exam and are admitted to candidacy should register for HPS 3000 Dissertation Research (up to 9 credits)beginning in the semester following the prospectus exam and, once they have accumulated 72 credits, FTDA Full Time Dissertation Research.

    E. Part-Time Study:

    The doctoral program is designed to be a program for full-time study. Part-time status may be adopted by full time students enrolled in the doctoral program after they have completed one full term of graduate study with letter grades on at least three courses. It may only be adopted as a temporary measure in response to emergency circumstances and if there is a reasonable expectation that the student will be able to resume full-time study. A student may accrue at most two years of part-time study in the course of the program. A student may not be on part-time status in the terms during which the student submits research papers (Section E2) or submits to a prospectus.

    For purposes of clause III.E, years of part-time study will not be counted. Students who have undertaken part-time years will be required to have completed the comprehensive requirements by the end of their fifth full-time term in the program, excluding summer terms.

    In extraordinary circumstances, these conditions may be altered or waived on the basis of a written petition to the department.

    F. Courses in Other Departments:

    Students are encouraged to take courses in other departments. Indeed, it is recommended that students consider taking an M.A. or M.S. in another field. Work in another field should be undertaken only after students are well grounded in HPS.

    G. Academic Integrity:

    All students are expected to conduct their work in accordance with the academic integrity code of the University of Pittsburgh.

    H. Grades:

    Students must maintain a minimum of a `B' (3.0) average (see also section I on Incompletes). If a student falls below the requirement, s/he is placed on probation. Students remaining below the required 3.0 for two consecutive terms will not be allowed to register for the next term. In this case, the Department must meet in order to ascertain whether or not they will be allowed to continue in the program.

    I. Incompletes:

    The Department strongly discourages incomplete grades in seminars. For the official policy on "G" and "I" grades, see the Graduate Programs Bulletin.

    Students with incompletes on their records at evaluation time are at a severe disadvantage with respect to funding, and sometimes with respect to continuation in the program. Any I or G grades that are more than one term old will be counted as a grade of D for purposes of the annual evaluation. Students are reminded that a B average is required for continuation in the program, and students who do not have a B average will not be permitted to register. (A GPA of B should not, however, be construed as "making good progress.")

    J. Departmental Evaluations:

    The Department will meet each February to evaluate all students currently enrolled in the program. The Director of Graduate Studies, or the student's Dissertation Director, and the Chairman, will meet with each student and inform him/her of the results of the evaluation.

    Specifically, the will be informed in writing as to whether s/he is making good, satisfactory or unsatisfactory progress. Students falling into the latter category will be given one warning, and if improvement to satisfactory is not made by the next evaluation, they will be terminated from the program. Minimally, the students must complete successfully the requirements as stated herein, within the stipulated time periods. This includes those requirements for progress after the comprehensive requirements. Failure to complete the requirements will be considered grounds for termination from the program.

    Students working on their dissertations will be informed as to the Department's assessment concerning their placement possibilities.

    K. Leaves of Absence:

    Students may request a leave of absence. These requests are dealt with on a case-by-case basis. Students should submit their written request to the Graduate Advisor detailing the reasons and length of their proposed leave. Leaves of Absence are of two kinds - Official and Unofficial:

      1. Official: A graduate student may apply for an official leave of absence from graduate study in cases of illness or personal concerns. The application can be made for a maximum of one year for master's students or two years for doctoral students. The length and rationale for the leave of absence must be stated in advance, recommended to the Dean by the department, and approved by the Dean. Only one leave of absence can be obtained by a student during her or his graduate career. If the leave of absence has been approved, the statute of limitations for the degree is extended by the length of time of the leave. Doctoral students, however, will not be permitted an extension of the 10-year limit on the Ph.D. comprehensives. A student on an approved leave of absence must apply for readmission, but readmission is automatic and the fee will be waived.

      2. Unofficial: Readmission is not automatic, the application fee must be paid, and the original statute of limitations remains in effect.

    L. Placement:

    1. General Policy.

    a. Students who complete the Ph.D. program satisfactorily can expect strong support and aid from the Department in their efforts to find a suitable first position. The degree of Departmental commitment, and the nature of the positions for which it will support a student's application, will, however, be determined on a case-by-case basis. The Department will decide which positions an applicant may apply for with Departmental support. Such determinations will consider the quality of the student's course and dissertation work, the promptness with which work was completed and teaching competence. Completion of the Ph.D. program with work of marginally acceptable quality and speed will not entail Departmental support in placement efforts. However, should a student wish to solicit new letters and compile his or her own dossier, the candidate may apply wherever desired. Those writing letters of reference should be informed in such a case that the student is applying for positions without Departmental support.

    b. Given the strong competition for few job openings, the Department cannot commit itself to recommending for tenure stream college/university appointments anyone who is not very close to completion of the Ph.D. To do so would be detrimental to the reputation of all students seeking appointments with Departmental support.

    c. In preparing for job applications and subsequent interviewing, students will be assisted by their dissertation committee chair and the Director of Placement. They will organize a mock job interview and rehearsal job talk as appropriate.

    2. Practical Advice

    Students should begin preparations early by developing expertise that will assist in securing positions. There are relatively few positions available specifically in history and philosophy of science. Most doctorates from the department have found positions in philosophy departments. Students who will seek appointment in a philosophy department are urged to develop a general expertise appropriate to a philosophy department. They should be adept in a broad range of philosophical areas, including elementary logic, and should develop the general philosophical expertise that complements their specialty. For example, a student working in 17th century science should also be knowledgeable in 17th century philosophy; a student working in philosophy of cognitive science should also have an expertise in general philosophy of mind; a student working in confirmation theory should also be knowledgeable in epistemology. Fewer positions are available in history of science programs, although students with expertise in history of science may also secure positions as archivists, editors of scholarly editions and in museums. Students who will seek positions in history of science programs should develop general expertise appropriate to a history department, analogously to the suggestions above for those seeking appointment in a philosophy department.

    The American Philosophical Association's Jobs for Philosophers should be consulted to ascertain the kind and range of specializations and competencies that are being sought. The Philosophy of Science Association's Newsletter and the History of Science Society's Newsletter advertise positions in philosophy of science and history of science and should be consulted also as relevant.

    3. Preparation and Mailing of Dossiers
    a. A typical dossier consists of a cover letter (written by the Director of Placement), resume/CV, confidential letters of recommendation, teaching portfolio and samples of written work, including an outline of the dissertation. In the selection and preparation of these materials, the student will be assisted by the dissertation committee chair and the Director of Placement. In order to allow time for revision of this material, students should supply draft versions of written material for the dossier as early as possible.

    b. Those writing letters of recommendation must be given a draft version of the complete Ph. D. dissertation early enough for them to read it and prepare their letters. If a student wants to be considered for interviews at the December American Philosophical Association meeting, the student must submit a draft by September 1; for the April meetings, February 1.

    c. The duplication and mailing of dossiers is costly, requiring much staff time and mailing expense. So students are asked to be modest in their requests. They are to be assisted in narrowing their selections by discussion with their dissertation committee chairs and the Director of Placement.

    d. The department will duplicate and distribute complete dossiers, consisting of items outlined in 3a above; and a reduced dossier consisting of the Director of Placement's cover letter, the confidential letters of recommendation and a note supplied by the student indicating the further materials that the student will send independently.

    e. The extent of support in preparing and mailing dossiers will be adjusted to respond to the needs of individual job searches, with the following as a default. For students in their first or second year of the job search and also still in residence in Pittsburgh, the department will prepare and distribute up to 50 complete dossiers each year; further dossiers distributed will be the reduced dossier. For students in their second year of job search and no longer in residence in Pittsburgh or those who are in their third year of job search, the department will distribute the reduced dossier.

    f. It is the student's primary responsibility to assure that the placement dossier has been assembled in time to be duplicated and mailed in conformity with advertised deadlines. In determining the date by which the dossier should be assembled, students should note the following. Duplication and mailing of one student's dossier to the departments requested can take up to a week. Office policy is to attend first to dossiers that have been completed first. Thus if there are several dossiers to be distributed, attention to a student's dossier may be delayed while one completed earlier is duplicated and mailed.

    g. Once the Department has been assured by the student that a dossier is complete, duplication will begin. To preclude costly reduplication, no changes may then be made to the dossier.

    M. Privacy Act:

    Students are advised that recommendation letters for which they have not waived their rights of access are often not taken seriously. Some professors refuse to write letters of recommendation if such access rights are not waived. Waiver forms will be provided for those wishing them at the time that recommendation letters are solicited.

    N. Problem Resolution

    If a student or faculty member experiences a problem with the advising process, the DGS or the Chair should be notified. The Chair or DGS should try to mediate any problems and to help the student continue to progress towards the degree. Students are informed that if reconciliation at the departmental level fails, they may bring their problems to the FAS Dean's office.


VIII. Teaching assistantships and fellowships:

    A. Eligibility:

    Full-time graduate students in good or satisfactory standing in the Department are eligible for TA-ships. Students making good progress will be given preference. The number of TAs available is a function of the money given to the Department by the Administration. The conditions of eligibility are three:

      1. The student's academic work must meet a minimum standard set by the faculty (viz., students whose status is provisional are not eligible).

      2. No student can expect more than ten terms of financial support from University funds (excluding Summer Term and Sessions).

      3. The progress of students will be evaluated each January or February. The reallocation of TAs will be contingent on satisfactory progress towards the requirement for the Ph.D.

    B. Training:
      1. The University requires that all TA/TFs enroll in FACDEV 2200 during the term in which they first are assigned to an independent teaching position. HPS TA/TFs must also enroll in HPS 2497 (Teaching Practicum) during the fall term of the first year they teach.

      2. Those students appointed as TAs or TFs should carefully read Section VIII .E. on the responsibilities of TA/TFs.

    C. Evaluations:
      1. Student's progress will be evaluated each January or February.

      2. Students who performed poorly as TAs should not expect renewal. Students who lack the requisite communication skills or substantive knowledge will not be given TAs.

      3. Teaching assistants and teaching fellows must be evaluated by students and by a supervising faculty member in each course to which they are assigned.

        a. Student evaluations are arranged by the Office for the Evaluation of Teaching. The OET sends a form for requesting evaluation to everyone who is teaching a class. Teaching assistants and teaching fellows should use this form to request an evaluatio n. The OET returns completed evaluations to the teachers after the term is over. Teaching assistants and teaching fellows should look over the evaluations and give them to the Administrative Assistant of the Department within a week of receiving them. The evaluations become a permanent part of the graduate student's file. Evaluations are an important part of a job dossier, and are released to the person evaluated when he or she leaves the university.

        b. In courses that use teaching assistants or teaching fellows, faculty evaluations are conducted by the faculty instructor. A faculty member appointed by the Chair evaluates independently taught classes. In each case, the faculty member visits the class at least once during the term. The faculty member writes a report about this visit and discusses the report with the teaching assistant or teaching fellow before depositing it in his or her file, no later than the end of the term in which the course is taught. Decisions concerning renewal of teaching positions will be made in light of both student and faculty evaluations.

      4. In the event that fewer TAs are available than students who qualify and apply for them, the following principles will be given the selection process:
        a. Academic merit
        b. Suitable background for TA assignment
    D. Promotion From TA to TF:

    Promotion to a TF requires the completion of the Master's Degree or the completion of eight courses and successfully passing the comprehensives.

    E. Responsibilities:

      1. TA/TFs must meet every scheduled class on time and remain in session for the entire scheduled period. This rule applies to first-week sessions in which you are assisting, even if the section meets before the lecture. Use this meeting to introduce yourself to the students and tell them what your office hours are, get a list of their names and phone numbers, let them know what textbooks are required, what the course will be about and explain the University's policy on plagiarism. You can also discuss course requirements and grading policies. If you have full responsibility for a course, you must use the first meeting to cover preliminary matters discussed above and to present your first lecture. Even though the students "haven't read anything" before the first class, you cannot afford to waste this class period.

      All classes throughout the whole term must meet as scheduled. Exceptions are made when numbers of sections are reduced at the start of the term, but this is done at the request of the professor.

      CGS courses must meet at all scheduled class times. CGS is very strict about this. So is HPS. No one, this term or any subsequent term will cancel any class without explicit permission from the chairman's office. Any unauthorized cancellation will result in immediate dismissal from your TA position and will ensure that no future funding will be granted by the Department. There are no exceptions. There is no one save the chairman that can authorize same. If a medical or other serious emergency prevents your meeting your class, you must inform the Department Chair (and the supervising lecturer if you are assisting in a course) as far in advance as possible so that an arrangement can be made to cover the class. Failure to comply with this rule can result in not being reappointed the following term, or in some cases, dismissal.

      2. If you are assisting in a course, you must attend every lecture in the course.

      3. You must keep an official record for the class or section to which you are assigned. This should include each student's name, student number (Social Security Number), an attendance record, and each grade assigned for homework, papers, and examinations. Your record must be turned into the office for filing at the end of the term.

      4. Office hours (two hours a week on separate days) should be scheduled for the convenience of students. You should notify them of your office hours during the first week of class. Notify the Administrative Assistant in writing of your office hours no later than the end of the first full week of classes.

      5. You are responsible for 20 hours of work per week as a TA/TF. This includes office hours, time spent in the class you are teaching, preparation and grading time.

      6. The Department does not charge for photocopies of tests and other handouts.

      7. A copy of ALL materials that are prepared by you to hand out in your course must be given to the Department Administrator AT THE TIME THE MATERIALS ARE PREPARED.

      8. University rules forbid the posting of grades . It is recommended that you use Courseweb for communication of grades. If you do not use it, note that the Department will not give out grades over the telephone. At the end of term, students may obtain their grades by (1) stopping by the Departmental office and looking at their exams, (2) waiting for grades to arrive in the mail from the registrar, (3) giving you a stamped, addressed post card, or (4) calling you at home, if you wish to allow this.

      9. Important remarks about grading papers and exams.

        a. Graded work must be returned in a timely manner. For classes and sections that meet only once a week, this usually means papers and exams should be returned at the next meeting after the work was handed in. You must not allow pressures of your other work to prevent you from giving your students appropriate and timely feedback on their work.

        b. Comments on papers should never be sarcastic or cruel. Special sensitivity should be exercised when the philosophical materials covered in a course challenge fundamental religious or ethical beliefs of students.

        c. Check references in written work carefully, and be aware of the possibility of plagiarism (see below).

      10. Academic dishonesty: Students should be informed in advance of commencing relevant projects and exams of the nature of plagiarism and other forms of academic dishonesty. (See handout on plagiarism.) If a student is suspected of academic dishonesty, you must follow appropriate procedures, as outlined in the University's pamphlet, "Guidelines on Academic Integrity." You should familiarize yourself with these regulations. But specifically, at the beginning of each course (in the first two classes) students must be told what cheating is (including plagiarism) and explicitly told not to do it. Next, if someone is caught cheating, they should be notified at that time. See the Director of Graduate Studies for assistance.

      11. Sexual harassment in its multi-varied forms is increasingly being recognized as a problem on all US campuses. You are responsible for familiarizing yourself with the University's policy on combating sexual harassment and for behaving in accordance with this policy.

      12. As a Teaching Assistant or Teaching Fellow, you are an employee of the University and representative of the Department of History and Philosophy of Science. In the circumstances, criticizing the Department, the courses, the texts, the faculty, or the discipline, in your classroom or in private discussion with your students would be unseemly, disloyal, and demoralizing. If you have legitimate complaints, bring them to your supervising lecturer, the Director of Graduate Studies, or the Chair. Our program of graduate support depends on maintaining a good teaching record. Each HPS course should be a valuable experience for every student enrolled in it.


IX. Other items:

    A. Graduate Student Organization:

    The Graduate Student Organization is an informal organization formed in 1977 to represent the graduate students in the History and Philosophy of Science Department, and to give them a voice in Departmental issues that affect graduate students. Any graduate student in the History and Philosophy of Science Department may be a member of the organization.

    The members elect a graduate student in good standing to represent them at all Departmental meetings, and an alternate representative who replaces the representative in case s/he is unable to attend a Departmental meeting. The representative may make proposals at Departmental meetings and participate in the discussions but is not empowered to vote. The representative also calls student meetings when necessary, in order to discuss proposals for new rules and issues of concern to the graduate students, and to report on the results of Departmental meetings to the students.

    B. Funds for Graduate Student Research and Travel:

    Funds are available within the department to support graduate student travel on research and professional projects. Each year the funds available will be divided and distributed as follows:

    1. Every graduate student entitled to receive support will be assigned a travel fund. Its size will be proportional to the student's number of years in the program (up to a maximum of 5). i.e. 1st year students have 1 share, 2nd year students 2 shares, ..., 5th years students 5 shares, 6th year students 5 shares etc. The amounts will vary from year to year. In 2002-2003, our total budget was $9000 and one share was slightly less than $100.

    2. Claims may be made at any time from July 1 to May 1 for the financial year starting in July 1. Reimbursement will be made only for legitimate, appropriately documented expenses relating to research travel. Legitimate expenses include costs associated with:

    travel, accommodation, fees arising from attendance or participation in an academic conference relevant to the student's research interests.

    travel, accommodation and fees associated with visits to archives and related sites of relevance to the student's research.

    Students are expected to take all reasonable economies, including the use of lowest airfares that include Saturday night stay over. Travel is not supported unless most of the trip is spent on research activities. Summer trips home are not supported.

    3. If any funds are undistributed by May 1, they will be redistributed against unreimbursed claims in the proportion indicated above in 1.

    4. For reimbursement associated with any particular trip, within 2 weeks of the conclusion of the trip, students must provide the Departmental Administrator with:

    A brief note indicating the academic purpose of the travel.

    Documentation of the academic nature of the travel; for example, a flyer indicating the name and date of the relevant conference or a program indicating the student's participation.

    All receipts associated with the travel, including those to be considered on May 1 for the redistribution of residual funds.

    All these materials are to be enclosed in an envelope along with an itemized list of the receipts and their amounts.

    The Graduate School of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences also supports travel by graduate students to conferences at which they will present papers, but asks that graduate students not approach FAS until departmental funds are exhausted. Travel funds are also available from Sigma Xi for student members and support for international travel may also be available from UCIS, The University Center for International Studies.

    Some very limited funds are available to support research expenses not related to travel. Interested graduate students should inquire with the Chair directly at any time.


X. Timing of Some Requirements for the Doctoral Program:




Handbook Section

Core sequence, HPS 2501, HPS 2502, HPS 2503

Expected within first two years in program




Distribution of studies in Areas 2 and Areas 3

Prior to prospectus exam


First language requirement

Prior to completing comprehensive requirements (i.e. before Research

Papers in Fall of third year)


Second language requirement

Prior to prospectus exam


Further distribution of studies requirement

Prior to prospectus exam


Logic requirement

Prior to prospectus exam


Comprehensive requirement: Examinations

Expected by end of second year


Comprehensive requirement: Research papers

Submitted in Fall of third year in program


Course credit requirement (72 credit hours)

Prior to dissertation defense