Jeffrey Fine MD

About me

I am a breast and gynecologic pathologist with research interests in eXplainable AI (xA), Computational Pathology, in vivo microscopy (IVM), multiplexed image analysis, whole slide imaging (WSI), telepathology, and other digital pathology topics. One application of computational pathology is Computer Assisted Diagnosis for Pathologists (pCAD), which is a novel paradigm for 21st century workflow.

Education and Training

  • Pathology Informatics Fellowship - UPMC, 2006
  • Certificate, Biomedical Informatics - U. Pittsburgh, 2006
  • Pathology Residency - Cleveland Clinic, 2005
  • MD - Ohio State University, 2000
  • BS - Cellular & Molecular Biology, U. Michigan, 1995 (with Honors)

Clinical Expertise

  • Breast and Gynecologic Pathology
  • Image Analysis
  • Telepathology
  • Whole Slide Imaging (WSI)

Research Interests

  • Explainable AI (xAI)
  • Computational Pathology, including computer assisted diagnosis for pathologists (pCAD)
  • In vivo / ex vivo microscopy (IVM and EVM)--I currently use Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)
  • Whole Slide Imaging (WSI) - clinical applications, R&D, telepathology
  • MultiSpectral Imaging (MSI)


  • Japan Exchange and Teaching Program Alumnus (Shimotsuma City Board of Education, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan) (茨城県下妻市の教育委員会でした。)

Work Links

Selected Publications

  • Parvatikar A, Choudhary O, Ramanathan A, Navolotskaia O, Carter G, Tosun AB, Fine JL, Chennubhotla SC. Modeling histological patterns for differential diagnosis of atypical breast lesions. In: Martel A.L. et al. (eds) Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2020. MICCAI 2020. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 12265. Springer, Cham. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-59722-1_53
  • Tosun AB, Pullara F, Becich MJ, Taylor DL, Chennubhotla SC, Fine JL. HistoMapr™: An explainable AI (xAI) platform for computational pathology solutions. In: Holzinger A., Goebel R., Mengel M., Müller H. (eds) Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning for Digital Pathology. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 12090. Springer, Cham. 2020. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-50402-1_13
  • Fine JL, Tosun AB, Pullara F, Becich MJ, Taylor DL, Chennubhotla SC. HistoMapr™: An explainable AI (xAI) platform for computational pathology. SpIntellx whitepaper self-published on SCRIBD 03/20/2019 and updated in 2021 (available from SpIntellx)
  • Tosun AB, Pullara F, Becich MJ, Taylor DL, Fine JL, Chennubhotla SC (co-senior authors). Explainable AI (xAI) for Anatomic Pathology. Adv Anat Pathol, 2020. 27(4):241-250. doi: 10.1097/PAP.0000000000000264
  • Wells WA, Thrall M, Sorokina A, Fine J, Krishnamurthy S, Haroon A, Rao B, Shevchuk MM, Wolfsen HC, Tearney GJ, Hariri LP. In vivo and ex vivo microscopy: moving toward the integration of optical imaging technologies into pathology practice. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2019;143:288-298. doi 10.5858/arpa.2018-0298-RA
  • Tosun AB, Nguyen L, Ong N, Navolotskaia O, Carter G, Fine JL, Taylor DL, Chennubhotla SC. Histological Detection of High-Risk Benign Breast Lesions from Whole Slide Images. In: Descoteaux M., Maier-Hein L., Franz A., Jannin P., Collins D., Duchesne S. (eds) Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention − MICCAI 2017. MICCAI 2017. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 10434. Springer, Cham (published online Sept 2017) DOI
  • Farahani N, Liu Z, Jutt D, Fine JL. Pathologists' Computer-Assisted Diagnosis: A Mock-up of a Prototype Information System to Facilitate Automation of Pathology Sign-out. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2017 Jul 7. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 28686499
  • Nguyen L, Tosun AB, Fine JL, Taylor DL, Chennubhotla SC. ARCHITECTURAL PATTERNS FOR DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF PROLIFERATIVE BREAST LESIONS FROM HISTOPATHOLOGICAL IMAGES. 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI 2017). Melbourne, Australia (presented by Dr. Fine 19 April 2017).
  • Nguyen L, Tosun AB, Fine J, Lee A, Taylor DL, Chennubhotla C. Spatial statistics for segmenting histological structures in H&E stained tissue images. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2017 Mar 16. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 28328502
  • Spagnolo DM, Gyanchandani R, Al-Kofahi Y, Stern AM, Lezon TR, Gough A, Meyer DE, Ginty F, Sarachan B, Fine J, Lee AV, Taylor DL, Chennubhotla SC. Pointwise mutual information quantifies intratumor heterogeneity in tissue sections labeled with multiple fluorescent biomarkers. J Pathol Inform. 2016;7:47. PMID:27994939
  • Cao C, Vasilatos SN, Bhargava R, Fine JL, Oesterreich S, Davidson NE, Huang Y. Functional interaction of histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) and lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) promotes breast cancer progression. Oncogene. 2016 May 23; Advance online publication (PMID: 27212032).
  • Farahani N, Post R, Duboy J, Ahmed I, Kolowitz BJ, Krinchai T, Monaco SE, Fine JL, Hartman DJ, Pantanowitz L. Exploring virtual reality technology and the Oculus Rift for the examination of digital pathology slides. J Pathol Inform. 2016;7:22. PMID: 27217972
  • Nayak SR, Harrington E, Boone D, Hartmaier R, Chen J, Pathiraja TN, Cooper KL, Fine JL, Sanfilippo J, Davidson NE, Lee AV, Dabbs D, Oesterreich S. A Role for Histone H2B Variants in Endocrine-Resistant Breast Cancer. Horm Cancer. 2015 Dec;6(5-6):214-24. PMID: 26113056
  • Fine JL. 21st Century Workflow: A Proposal. J Pathol Inform 2014, 5:44 (PMID: 25535592).
  • Durkin JR, Fine JL, Sam H, Pugliano-Mauro M, Ho J. Imaging of Mohs Micrographic Surgery Sections Using Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography: A Pilot Study. Dermatol Surg, 2014 Mar;40(3):266-74 (doi: 10.1111/dsu.12419).
  • Sellaro TL, Filkins R, Hoffman C, Fine JL, Ho J, Parwani AV, Pantanowitz L, Montalto M. Relationship between magnification and resolution in digital pathology systems. J Pathol Inform 2013 Aug 22;4:21 (DOI: 10.4103/2153-3539.116866).
  • Yu J, Monaco SE, Onisko A, Bhargava R, Dabbs DJ, Cieply KM, Fine JL.  A validation study of quantum dot multispectral imaging to evaluate hormone receptor status in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast. Hum Pathol. 2013 Mar;44(3):394-401 (doi:10.1016/j.humpath.2012.06.002).
  • Fine JL. Comment on "Modified full-field optical coherence tomography: A novel tool for rapid histology of fresh tissues". J Pathol Inform. 2011;2:28 (DOI: 10.4103/2153-3539.82054).
  • Fine JL, Kagemann L, Wollstein G, Ishikawa H, Schuman JS. Direct scanning of pathology specimens using spectral domain optical coherence tomography: a pilot study. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2010; 41:S58-S64 (doi: 10.3928/15428877-20101031-05).
  • Fine JL, Grzybicki DM, Silowash R, Ho J, Gilbertson JR, Anthony L, Wilson R, Parwani AV, Bastacky SI, Epstein JI, Jukic DM. Evaluation of Whole Slide Image Immunohistochemistry Interpretation in Challenging Prostate Needle Biopsies. Hum Pathol. 39(4):564-72. 2008 (doi: 10.1016/j.humpath.2007.08.007).
  • Horbinski C, Fine JL, Medina-Flores R, Yagi Y, Wiley CA. Telepathology for Intraoperative Neuropathologic Consultations at an Academic Medical Center: A 5-Year Report. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol, 66(8):750-9. 2007 (PMID: 17882019).