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As Reutler and Malik point out in their critique of the DSM-IV,

"the same (or very similar) phenomena can be categorized in strikingly different ways across different cultures and periods of time, illustrating that there are always alternatives available. [A]ll classification schemes, however seemingly objective the criteria, are developed and agreed upon to meet particular human needs making it reasonable to suppose that even quite different approaches may be useful depending on the particular needs at hand" (2002: ix-x).