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Other factors also play a role in the development of diabetes. Professors Hales and Barker showed that in England the frequency of IGT and diabetes (DM) in older men is inversely proportional to their birth weight. They proposed that environmental factors acting in utero or early life determine the risk for development of diabetes in later life. They postulated that individuals with low birth weight, who were undernourished during foetal life, have disturbances in insulin secretion or in metabolic programming that lead to metabolic disturbances and other features of insulin resistance syndrome, and/or diabetes in later years.