<xml id=“eXtensible Markup Language”/>

Organizing Hierarchies

Important Concepts to Understand when creating Hierarchies: Russian Nesting Dolls or Family Tree or BOXES in BOXES

Russian Nesting Dolls

Russian Nesting Dolls Russian Nesting Dolls

Family Tree

  • element hierarchies resemble the descent of a family tree
  • relationships are referred to similarily ie.
    1. ancestor
    2. descendent
    3. sibling
    4. parent
Family Tree : Kinship Relation

Boxes in Boxes

  • Elements are boxes
  • Attributes distinguish box types.


The Element

  • every tag / element begins with < and ends with > some elements that don’t contain any internal text are self closing.
  • element is to attribute as noun is to adjective

Self-closing elements: the subtitle of this workshop <digital type="humanities"/>

Basic element structure: <greeting xml:lang="en">Hello, world! This is the content.</greeting>

Marking Up Texts Envisioning Well Formed Hierarchies

Politics and Language of Turkish Rock Music

Structural Mark-Up
used to show the basic structure of the text
Contextual Mark-Up
tagging could include:
  • focused research question data
  • translations of foreign language references
  • themes
  • etc.


A valid XML document follows the Rules of a Schema

  1. available vocabulary used to tag elements & attributes
  2. grammar for how the vocabulary is used: rules for nesting, sequencing, etc.

The Restoration of Nell Nelson

Visualizing Research using Stylesheets

Russian Rap Project

Exploring the Applications of XML

The Diachronic Growth of Joey Bada$$

Quantifying Texts

Frank O'Hara's Poetry


Our Author of Interest: Simon Ortiz


  • Acoma Pueblo Indian
  • Born and raised near Albuquerque, New Mexico
  • Grew up speaking the Acoma tongue
  • earned a Master of Fine Arts in Writing from the University of Iowa in 1969
  • During the 1960s he served in the Army, where he suffered discrimination, and worked in a uranium mining industry whose profit-driven desecration of the land he would later movingly protest
  • In the early 1970s he began to write in earnest while teaching at various colleges
  • In 1982 won a Pushcart Prize and a wide audience with From Sand Creek 

Poetic Style and Themes

  • Simple in its diction and rhythms
  • Expresses great reverence for beloved landscapes
  • intense rage against the de-humanizing forces of excessive development and mechanization
  • Concerned with modern man’s alienation from others, from himself, and from his environment—urging as a solution our meaningful re-connection with the wisdom of ancestral spirits and with our Mother Earth

Our Poem (as available online)