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Review Questions

Test your understanding of this lecture by answering the following questions. To return from the hint back to the question, click the word: REV

  1. How important is cancer as a global health problem?
  2. Hint

  3. What is cancer?
  4. Hint

  5. "Cancer doesn’t grow freely like cells in a tissue culture dish. The patient puts up a fight!" Discuss this statement in terms of the role of host resistance in the biology of cancer.
  6. Hint

  7. What is the natural history of cancer? How does this form the basis for clinical staging? Why is staging important?
  8. Hint

  9. What is the "gold standard" for diagnosing cancer? What are biological markers for cancer?
  10. Hint

  11. What implications does a knowledge of the biology of cancer have for controlling the disease?
  12. Hint

  13. "Cancer is a lifestyle disease." Discuss this statement with reference to the role of social factors in the causation of cancer.
  14. Hint



  15. How does a knowledge of the role of social factors in the causation of cancer help to control the disease?
  16. Hint

  17. What are the three basic causal mechanisms for cancer?
  18. Hint



  19. What are oncogenes? How do they mediate the effects of carcinogens?
  20. Hint

  21. What is malignant transformation of a cell?
  22. Hint

  23. How do tumors spread and kill their hosts? What is metastasis?
  24. Hint

  25. Does diet play a role in cancer causation?
  26. Hint

  27. What are risk factors? How are they quantified?
  28. Hint

  29. How do social risk factors affect cancer etiology?
  30. Hint

  31. What risk factors are implicated currently in causing cancer?
  32. Hint

    What is their relative importance?


  33. What is the transition phenomenon? What is a DALY?
  34. Hint

  35. Does cancer have the same pattern in populations from either developed or developing countries?
  36. Hint


  37. Are patterns of cancer occurrence independent of space (geography) and time across all countries of the world?
  38. Hint


  39. Discuss the social and economic impacts of cancer as a world health problem.



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