Oracle8 Parallel Server Concepts & Administration
Release 8.0






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This manual describes the Oracle8 Parallel Server and supplements Oracle8 Administrator's Guide and Oracle8 Concepts.

This manual prepares you to successfully implement parallel processing by providing a thorough presentation of the concepts and procedures involved. Information in this manual applies to the Oracle8 Parallel Server running on all operating systems.

Note: Oracle8 Parallel Server Concepts and Administration contains information that describes the features and functionality of the Oracle8 and the Oracle8 Enterprise Edition products. Oracle8 and Oracle8 Enterprise Edition have the same basic features. However, several advanced features are available only with the Enterprise Edition, and some of these are optional. For example, to use application failover, you must have the Enterprise Edition and the Parallel Server Option.

For information about the differences between Oracle8 and the Oracle8 Enterprise Edition and the features and options that are available to you, please refer to Getting to Know Oracle8 and the Oracle8 Enterprise Edition.

Intended Audience

This manual is written for database administrators and application developers who work with a parallel server.


Part I: Parallel Processing Fundamentals

Chapter 1: Parallel Processing & Parallel Databases


This chapter introduces parallel processing and parallel database technologies, which offer great advantages for online transaction processing and decision support applications.


Chapter 2: Successfully Implementing Parallel Processing


This chapter explains how to attain the goals of speedup and scaleup, by effectively implementing parallel processing and parallel database technology.


Chapter 3: Parallel Hardware Architecture


This chapter describes the range of available hardware implementations which allow parallel processing, and surveys their advantages and disadvantages.


Part II: Oracle Parallel Server Concepts

Chapter 4: How Oracle Implements Parallel Processing


This chapter gives a high-level view of how the Oracle Parallel Server provides high performance parallel processing.


Chapter 5: Oracle Instance Architecture for the Parallel Server


This chapter explains features of Oracle multi-instance architecture which differ from an Oracle server in exclusive mode.


Chapter 6: Oracle Database Architecture for the Parallel Server


This chapter describes features of Oracle database architecture that pertain to the multiple instances of a parallel server.


Chapter 7: Overview of Locking Mechanisms


This chapter provides an overview of internal Oracle Parallel Server locking mechanisms.


Chapter 8: Integrated Distributed Lock Manager: Access to Resources


This chapter explains the role of the Integrated Distributed Lock Manager in controlling access to resources in a parallel server.


Chapter 9: Parallel Cache Management Instance Locks


This chapter provides a conceptual overview of PCM locks. The planning and allocation of PCM locks is one of the most complex tasks facing the Oracle Parallel Server database administrator.


Chapter 10: Non-PCM Instance Locks


This chapter describes some of the most common non-PCM instance locks.


Chapter 11: Space Management and Free List Groups


This chapter explains space management concepts.


Chapter 12: Application Analysis


This chapter provides a conceptual framework for optimizing OPS application design.


Part III: OPS System Development Procedures

Chapter 13: Designing a Database for Parallel Server


This chapter prescribes a general methodology for designing systems optimized for the Oracle Parallel Server.


Chapter 14: Creating a Database & Objects for Multiple Instances


This chapter describes aspects of database creation that are specific to a parallel server.


Chapter 15: Allocating PCM Instance Locks


This chapter explains how to allocate PCM locks to datafiles by specifying values for parameters in the initialization file of an instance.


Chapter 16: Ensuring IDLM Capacity for All Resources & Locks


This chapter explains how to reduce contention for shared resources and gain maximum performance from the parallel server by ensuring that adequate space is available in the Integrated Distributed Lock Manager for all the necessary locks and resources.


Chapter 17: Using Free List Groups to Partition Data


This chapter explains how to allocate free lists and free list groups to partition data. By doing this you can minimize contention for free space when using multiple instances.


Part IV: OPS System Maintenance Procedures

Chapter 18: Administering Multiple Instances


This chapter describes how to administer instances of a parallel server.


Chapter 19: Tuning the System to Optimize Performance


This chapter provides an overview of tuning issues.


Chapter 20: Monitoring Views & Tuning a Parallel Server


This chapter describes how to monitor performance of a parallel server by querying data dictionary views and dynamic performance views. It also explains how to tune a parallel server.


Chapter 21: Backing Up the Database


This chapter explains how to protect your data by archiving the online redo log files and periodically backing up the datafiles, the control file for your database, and the parameter files for your instances.


Chapter 22: Recovering the Database


This chapter describes Oracle recovery features on a parallel server.


Chapter 23: Migrating from Single Instance to Parallel Server


This chapter describes database conversion from a single instance Oracle8 database to a multi-instance Oracle8 database using the parallel server option.


Part V: Reference

Appendix A: Differences from Previous Versions


This appendix describes the differences between this release and previous releases of the Parallel Server Option.


Appendix B: Restrictions


This appendix lists restrictions for the parallel server.


Related Documents

This manual assumes you have already read Oracle8 Concepts and Oracle8 Administrator's Guide.


This section explains the conventions used in this manual including the following:


This section explains the conventions used within the text:

UPPERCASE Characters

Uppercase text is used to call attention to command keywords, object names, parameters, filenames, and so on.

For example, "If you create a private rollback segment, the name must be included in the ROLLBACK_SEGMENTS parameter of the parameter file."

Italicized Characters

Italicized words within text are book titles or emphasized words.

Syntax Diagrams and Notation

The syntax diagrams and notation in this manual show the syntax for SQL commands, functions, hints, and other elements. This section tells you how to read syntax diagrams and examples and write SQL statements based on them.


Keywords are words that have special meanings in the SQL language. In the syntax diagrams in this manual, keywords appear in uppercase. You must use keywords in your SQL statements exactly as they appear in the syntax diagram, except that they can be either uppercase or lowercase. For example, you must use the CREATE keyword to begin your CREATE TABLE statements just as it appears in the CREATE TABLE syntax diagram.


Parameters act as place holders in syntax diagrams. They appear in lowercase. Parameters are usually names of database objects, Oracle datatype names, or expressions. When you see a parameter in a syntax diagram, substitute an object or expression of the appropriate type in your SQL statement. For example, to write a CREATE TABLE statement, use the name of the table you want to create, such as EMP, in place of the table parameter in the syntax diagram. (Note that parameter names appear in italics in the text.)

This list shows parameters that appear in the syntax diagrams in this manual and examples of the values you might substitute for them in your statements:

Parameter   Description   Examples  



The substitution value must be the name of an object of the type specified by the parameter.






The substitution value must be a character literal in single quotes.


'Employee Records'




The substitution value must be a condition that evaluates to TRUE or FALSE.


ename > 'A'





The substitution value must be a date constant or an expression of DATE datatype.








The substitution value can be an expression of any datatype.


sal + 1000




The substitution value must be an integer.






The substitution value must be an expression of datatype ROWID.






The substitution value must be a SELECT statement contained in another SQL statement.


SELECT ename

FROM emp





The substitution value must be an identifier for a SQL statement or PL/SQL block.





Code Examples

SQL and SQL*Plus commands and statements appear separated from the text of paragraphs in a monospaced font. For example:

INSERT INTO emp (empno, ename) VALUES (1000, 'SMITH'); 

Example statements may include punctuation, such as commas or quotation marks. All punctuation in example statements is required. All example statements terminate with a semicolon (;). Depending on the application, a semicolon or other terminator may or may not be required to end a statement.

Uppercase words in example statements indicate the keywords within Oracle SQL. When you issue statements, however, keywords are not case sensitive.

Lowercase words in example statements indicate words supplied only for the context of the example. For example, lowercase words may indicate the name of a table, column, or file.

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